Background To redefine the causal link between cell cycle dysregulation of T lymphocytes and HIV induced cell death. Methods Intacellualar concentration of cell cycle regulatory proteins has been measured by western blot; nucleolin (C23) concentration and localization has been established by confocal microscopy; expression of surface proteins and ultrastructural membrane damage have been analyzed by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results Here we demonstrate that circulating T lymphocytes, both CD4+ and CD8+, leave lymphoid tissues with diffused regressive lesions such as vacuolization, blebbing, nuclear evanescence and organelle swelling. Equally diffused are biochemical anomalies that accompany the overall disarrangement of cell structure, namely (i) fragmentation and diffusion into the cytoplasm of C23/ nucleolin, the principal structural protein of the nucleus (ii) an accumulation of short - lived regulatory proteins (p16, p21 and p53), likely due to the progressive extinction of the ATP - ub - proteasome system and (iii) a decreased expression of membrane proteins. Discussion The HIV - induced demise of CD4 -T cells is thought to be a result of the execution of genetically programmed cell death that occurs in lymphoid tissue, where many resident T cells are chronically hyperactivated and primed for apoptosis. The pre-lethal lesions described here recapitulate a series of regressive events that occur in immune cells, when they grow at high mitotic activity in conditions of scarce ATP production.

Nucleolin relocalization associated top re-lethal alterations of T cell morphology: redefining death in HIV infection

Giuseppa Visalli;Maria Paola Bertuccio;Cristina Chirico;Giovanni Pellicanò;Pasquale Spataro;Riccardo Ientile;Isa Picerno;Giuseppe Piedimonte
2010

Abstract

Background To redefine the causal link between cell cycle dysregulation of T lymphocytes and HIV induced cell death. Methods Intacellualar concentration of cell cycle regulatory proteins has been measured by western blot; nucleolin (C23) concentration and localization has been established by confocal microscopy; expression of surface proteins and ultrastructural membrane damage have been analyzed by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results Here we demonstrate that circulating T lymphocytes, both CD4+ and CD8+, leave lymphoid tissues with diffused regressive lesions such as vacuolization, blebbing, nuclear evanescence and organelle swelling. Equally diffused are biochemical anomalies that accompany the overall disarrangement of cell structure, namely (i) fragmentation and diffusion into the cytoplasm of C23/ nucleolin, the principal structural protein of the nucleus (ii) an accumulation of short - lived regulatory proteins (p16, p21 and p53), likely due to the progressive extinction of the ATP - ub - proteasome system and (iii) a decreased expression of membrane proteins. Discussion The HIV - induced demise of CD4 -T cells is thought to be a result of the execution of genetically programmed cell death that occurs in lymphoid tissue, where many resident T cells are chronically hyperactivated and primed for apoptosis. The pre-lethal lesions described here recapitulate a series of regressive events that occur in immune cells, when they grow at high mitotic activity in conditions of scarce ATP production.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/1905712
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact