Purpose – In recent years, the economy system is moving towards to affirmation of the knowledge economy. The knowledge economy is driven by entrepreneurship and, consequently, the entrepreneurial university becomes and important catalyst for regional economic and social development. There is an introduction of an entrepreneurial logic in academia. The need to exploit economically the results of research, the lack of resources between the economic system and the continuous contamination / collaborations and academic system have produced a new form of organization: the spin-offs. In recent years, the spin-off phenomenon has become as a hot topic within the academic and professional debate. Despite the large number of studies on the spin-off products, the complexity of the same has left several aspects still unexplored. The transfer of knowledge between universities and businesses, academic entrepreneurship and commercialization of research products, are some of the various aspects that characterize the topic under analysis. Starting from these assumptions, this research work tries to offer a survey on the current "state of the art" of the phenomenon and to highlight the academic aspects of academic entrepreneurship with particular attention to the spin-off. The thesis work consists of three different scientific contributions with the aim of highlighting different aspects of the phenomenon. In the first part of this paper we have tried to analyze and identify the main lines of research on the spin-off and understand the main results and theory in the scientific literature. The literaturere view aims to define the boundaries and characteristics of the spin-off companies, highlighting its importance as a "vehicle" for the transfer of knowledge from universities to the territory. In fact, for the selection of the literature been identified of keywords in order to draw two research drivers: I. the concept of spin-off II. the mechanisms and the results of transfer of knowledge. The objective of the first research drivers is to give a possible solution to the interpretative phenomenon and represent the main variables that scholars use to analyze the phenomenon. The spinoff may be considered as the main expression of "academic entrepreneurship". This tool comes up against major constraints such as social usefulness (and often public) of research results and the lack of managerial skills in universities. The second driver of research aims to understand the main mechanisms for the transfer of knowledge analyzed by the scholar and the effects on spin-off. The second part of this contribution, however, was dedicated to understand the various factors and actors that influence the creation, development and management of spin-off. The spin-off organizations are presented as a complex organization, which needs a favourable system for the creation. Starting from these preliminary considerations, the contribution has tried to offer a systemic vision of the relationship between university, industry and government. The second part of the chapter aims the examination of the Italian spin-off system. In particular, starting from a database composed of 1390 spin-off, we tried to understand how knowledge is produced within universities influence the creation of spin-offs and their economic activities. Empirical observation has allowed highlighting the underlying theories. At the same time has tried to identify the distinctive features of the Italian system. The third and final contribution in this thesis focused on the process of creation of the spinoff with an internal perspective to university. The paper has analyzed the main contributions in the literature on the subject of the process creation of the spin-off and highlighting the main aspects and limitations of each model. The process has similar characteristics to the creation of a start-up. At the At the same time, the input of the creation of a spin-off is unique and particularly complex. The type of knowledge (research results) and organizational/managerial autonomy of universities (or HEIs) affect the process of spin-off creation. Studies and reflections have led to the formulation of an integration of the main spin-off creation processes. The reflections and the results shown in this thesis are born from participation in important summer schools, conferences and international conferences. In particular, part of the results were accepted and submitted to 16th and 17th European Conference of Knowledge Management (ECKM), 10th and 11th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics (IFKAD), Workshop organization studies (WOA). Some results of this thesis have been the subject of publication (or in the process of review) by some international scientific journals: Modern Social Science Journal, Journal of Management Development, Handbook on Research on Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Investment. Design/methodology/approach – This thesis is composed of three different papers, linked to each other by common purpose to study the phenomenon of spin-off organizations. Although the three papers have the same object of analysis, are differ by methodology used. Specifically are different types of papers presented: review of the literature, practical paper and academic research paper. The first paper uses a literature review, with the main objective to highlight the main issues addressed in the elaborate. In particular, using the SCOPUS database, are identified approximately 600 paper in line with the research question. The review has highlighted the main areas of research, the essential characteristics and the limits of literature. The theorical part of the study contextualises and defines the phenomenon of spinoff. The study outlines the main theory on the theme of the spinoff organization. The second paper, using a methodology of qualitative-descriptive type, aims to highlight the "success factors" in the process of creation, development and management of spin-offs. By analyzing brought forward, it was possible to create a "map" of the main actors and factors that influence the creation, development and management of the spinoff. Starting from the analysis of a sample of 1383 spinoff, it has sought to highlight the "state of health" of the Italian system of spin-offs. The relationship between knowledge produced in universities and spinoff comes easily interpreted from the theoretical point of view is not so immediate in terms of empirical. This part outlines interacting economic, social and political developments in Italian context. The theoretical framing for this study integrates resource-based research and the creativity of action theory. The last processed that makes up the thesis analyzes the main processes of creation of spin-off. For this reason, starting from an analysis of the literature have been identified the most accepted processes of creation of spinoff. The result of this paper was to provide a review of existing models Originality/value – The paper presents several aspects of originality. In the first chapter, after review of the literature, it proceeded to provide new parameters for classification. In particular, we tried to offer a personal definition of spin-off and understand how other scholars define the phenomenon. The second chapter provides a systemic view on the phenomenon of spin-off. The results of the work peddling "success factors" that influence the creation, the birth and development of spin-off. Specifically, it seeks to provide a complete view on the spin-off in the Italian system. The work seeks to offer the first results of a systemic reflection of the phenomenon in Italy. The third chapter, starting from the spin-off creation models in the literature, seeks to provide a critical view showing the main strengths and limitations. At the same time, we try to offer a personal interpretation of the creation process of the spin-off. Practical implications – The main objective of this thesis is to give a range of information and reflections for the creation and growth of spin-off, both as a tool for knowledge transfer between universities and the production system both as new entrepreneurship. Reflections both in managerial terms of analysis of the context can provide guidance for the development of the current condition of the spin-off. This research study provides theoretical insights and empirical evidence for scholars investigating academic entrepreneurship. In addition, it presents policy makers and university administrators with the key resource drivers of entrepreneurial action. It could also assist them in establishing an appropriate role for institutions and organisations in promoting entrepreneurial activities. With such knowledge they could provide academics with the resources required, foster their relevant abilities and get the most out of complementary effects, while acting with against potential trade-offs. Furthermore, the findings show that the activities of academic entrepreneurship is manifested through the spinoff. Moreover, the presence of spinoff is positively linked to economic development. The results indicate that academic spinoffs are a complex phenomenon in a heterogeneous

The aspects of knowledge transfer and academic entrepreneurship: The spinoff organizations

VESPERI, WALTER
2017-02-23

Abstract

Purpose – In recent years, the economy system is moving towards to affirmation of the knowledge economy. The knowledge economy is driven by entrepreneurship and, consequently, the entrepreneurial university becomes and important catalyst for regional economic and social development. There is an introduction of an entrepreneurial logic in academia. The need to exploit economically the results of research, the lack of resources between the economic system and the continuous contamination / collaborations and academic system have produced a new form of organization: the spin-offs. In recent years, the spin-off phenomenon has become as a hot topic within the academic and professional debate. Despite the large number of studies on the spin-off products, the complexity of the same has left several aspects still unexplored. The transfer of knowledge between universities and businesses, academic entrepreneurship and commercialization of research products, are some of the various aspects that characterize the topic under analysis. Starting from these assumptions, this research work tries to offer a survey on the current "state of the art" of the phenomenon and to highlight the academic aspects of academic entrepreneurship with particular attention to the spin-off. The thesis work consists of three different scientific contributions with the aim of highlighting different aspects of the phenomenon. In the first part of this paper we have tried to analyze and identify the main lines of research on the spin-off and understand the main results and theory in the scientific literature. The literaturere view aims to define the boundaries and characteristics of the spin-off companies, highlighting its importance as a "vehicle" for the transfer of knowledge from universities to the territory. In fact, for the selection of the literature been identified of keywords in order to draw two research drivers: I. the concept of spin-off II. the mechanisms and the results of transfer of knowledge. The objective of the first research drivers is to give a possible solution to the interpretative phenomenon and represent the main variables that scholars use to analyze the phenomenon. The spinoff may be considered as the main expression of "academic entrepreneurship". This tool comes up against major constraints such as social usefulness (and often public) of research results and the lack of managerial skills in universities. The second driver of research aims to understand the main mechanisms for the transfer of knowledge analyzed by the scholar and the effects on spin-off. The second part of this contribution, however, was dedicated to understand the various factors and actors that influence the creation, development and management of spin-off. The spin-off organizations are presented as a complex organization, which needs a favourable system for the creation. Starting from these preliminary considerations, the contribution has tried to offer a systemic vision of the relationship between university, industry and government. The second part of the chapter aims the examination of the Italian spin-off system. In particular, starting from a database composed of 1390 spin-off, we tried to understand how knowledge is produced within universities influence the creation of spin-offs and their economic activities. Empirical observation has allowed highlighting the underlying theories. At the same time has tried to identify the distinctive features of the Italian system. The third and final contribution in this thesis focused on the process of creation of the spinoff with an internal perspective to university. The paper has analyzed the main contributions in the literature on the subject of the process creation of the spin-off and highlighting the main aspects and limitations of each model. The process has similar characteristics to the creation of a start-up. At the At the same time, the input of the creation of a spin-off is unique and particularly complex. The type of knowledge (research results) and organizational/managerial autonomy of universities (or HEIs) affect the process of spin-off creation. Studies and reflections have led to the formulation of an integration of the main spin-off creation processes. The reflections and the results shown in this thesis are born from participation in important summer schools, conferences and international conferences. In particular, part of the results were accepted and submitted to 16th and 17th European Conference of Knowledge Management (ECKM), 10th and 11th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics (IFKAD), Workshop organization studies (WOA). Some results of this thesis have been the subject of publication (or in the process of review) by some international scientific journals: Modern Social Science Journal, Journal of Management Development, Handbook on Research on Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Investment. Design/methodology/approach – This thesis is composed of three different papers, linked to each other by common purpose to study the phenomenon of spin-off organizations. Although the three papers have the same object of analysis, are differ by methodology used. Specifically are different types of papers presented: review of the literature, practical paper and academic research paper. The first paper uses a literature review, with the main objective to highlight the main issues addressed in the elaborate. In particular, using the SCOPUS database, are identified approximately 600 paper in line with the research question. The review has highlighted the main areas of research, the essential characteristics and the limits of literature. The theorical part of the study contextualises and defines the phenomenon of spinoff. The study outlines the main theory on the theme of the spinoff organization. The second paper, using a methodology of qualitative-descriptive type, aims to highlight the "success factors" in the process of creation, development and management of spin-offs. By analyzing brought forward, it was possible to create a "map" of the main actors and factors that influence the creation, development and management of the spinoff. Starting from the analysis of a sample of 1383 spinoff, it has sought to highlight the "state of health" of the Italian system of spin-offs. The relationship between knowledge produced in universities and spinoff comes easily interpreted from the theoretical point of view is not so immediate in terms of empirical. This part outlines interacting economic, social and political developments in Italian context. The theoretical framing for this study integrates resource-based research and the creativity of action theory. The last processed that makes up the thesis analyzes the main processes of creation of spin-off. For this reason, starting from an analysis of the literature have been identified the most accepted processes of creation of spinoff. The result of this paper was to provide a review of existing models Originality/value – The paper presents several aspects of originality. In the first chapter, after review of the literature, it proceeded to provide new parameters for classification. In particular, we tried to offer a personal definition of spin-off and understand how other scholars define the phenomenon. The second chapter provides a systemic view on the phenomenon of spin-off. The results of the work peddling "success factors" that influence the creation, the birth and development of spin-off. Specifically, it seeks to provide a complete view on the spin-off in the Italian system. The work seeks to offer the first results of a systemic reflection of the phenomenon in Italy. The third chapter, starting from the spin-off creation models in the literature, seeks to provide a critical view showing the main strengths and limitations. At the same time, we try to offer a personal interpretation of the creation process of the spin-off. Practical implications – The main objective of this thesis is to give a range of information and reflections for the creation and growth of spin-off, both as a tool for knowledge transfer between universities and the production system both as new entrepreneurship. Reflections both in managerial terms of analysis of the context can provide guidance for the development of the current condition of the spin-off. This research study provides theoretical insights and empirical evidence for scholars investigating academic entrepreneurship. In addition, it presents policy makers and university administrators with the key resource drivers of entrepreneurial action. It could also assist them in establishing an appropriate role for institutions and organisations in promoting entrepreneurial activities. With such knowledge they could provide academics with the resources required, foster their relevant abilities and get the most out of complementary effects, while acting with against potential trade-offs. Furthermore, the findings show that the activities of academic entrepreneurship is manifested through the spinoff. Moreover, the presence of spinoff is positively linked to economic development. The results indicate that academic spinoffs are a complex phenomenon in a heterogeneous
Spin-off, Academic Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Transfer, Knowledge Management, University
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/3104670
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