Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related (GITR) protein is a costimulatory molecule that plays a role in inflammation so that GITR-Fc fusion protein can exert an antiinflammatory effect. To investigate the mechanism by which GITR-Fc exerts its effects, we first used GITR knock-out (GITR-/-) mice to verify whether GITR ligand (GITRL)/GITR system played a pro-inflammatory role in the spinal cord injury (SCI) model. It is noteworthy that less pronounced disease was induced in GITR-/- compared with GITR+/+ mice. We then evaluated the effect of GITR-Fc fusion protein against SCI-induced injuries in GITR-/- and wild-type (GITR+/+) mice. Administration of GITR-Fc ameliorated SCI-induced inflammation in GITR+/+ mice as evaluated through: 1) histological damage and apoptosis, 2) modulation of apoptosis-related transduction factors (Bax and Bcl-2), 3) expression of inflammatory markers [nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric-oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α], and 4) T-lymphocyte infiltration. GITR-Fc was effective in GITR+/+ but not in GITR-/-, suggesting that in this experimental model, its anti-inflammatory action was due to inhibition of GITR triggering and not to GITRL activation. In conclusion, GITR plays a role in SCI, and administration of GITR-Fc results in amelioration of SCI severity, prompting further studies on the potential anti-inflammatory properties of GITR-Fc.

Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related (GITR)-Fc fusion protein inhibits GITR triggering and protects from the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury

CUZZOCREA, Salvatore;GENOVESE, TIZIANA;ESPOSITO, EMANUELA;DI PAOLA R;BRAMANTI, Placido;
2008

Abstract

Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related (GITR) protein is a costimulatory molecule that plays a role in inflammation so that GITR-Fc fusion protein can exert an antiinflammatory effect. To investigate the mechanism by which GITR-Fc exerts its effects, we first used GITR knock-out (GITR-/-) mice to verify whether GITR ligand (GITRL)/GITR system played a pro-inflammatory role in the spinal cord injury (SCI) model. It is noteworthy that less pronounced disease was induced in GITR-/- compared with GITR+/+ mice. We then evaluated the effect of GITR-Fc fusion protein against SCI-induced injuries in GITR-/- and wild-type (GITR+/+) mice. Administration of GITR-Fc ameliorated SCI-induced inflammation in GITR+/+ mice as evaluated through: 1) histological damage and apoptosis, 2) modulation of apoptosis-related transduction factors (Bax and Bcl-2), 3) expression of inflammatory markers [nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric-oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α], and 4) T-lymphocyte infiltration. GITR-Fc was effective in GITR+/+ but not in GITR-/-, suggesting that in this experimental model, its anti-inflammatory action was due to inhibition of GITR triggering and not to GITRL activation. In conclusion, GITR plays a role in SCI, and administration of GITR-Fc results in amelioration of SCI severity, prompting further studies on the potential anti-inflammatory properties of GITR-Fc.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/12669
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 15
  • Scopus 29
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 27
social impact