Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a member of the nuclear-receptor superfamily that binds to DNA with retinoid X receptors as PPAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers. Recent evidence also suggests that the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), which is a metabolite of the prostaglandin D(2), functions as an endogenous ligand for PPAR-gamma We postulated that 15d-PGJ(2) would attenuate inflammation, investigating the effects on the degree of experimental spinal cord trauma induced by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, production of a range of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, and apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ(2) reduced (1) spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), (3) nuclear factor-kappa B activation, (4) expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha, and (5) apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated uridine triphosphate end labeling staining, Bax, Bcl-2, and FAS-L expression). In a separate set of experiments, 15d-PGJ(2) significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). To elucidate whether the protective effects of 15d-PGJ(2) are related to activation of the PPAR-gamma receptor, we also investigated the effect of a PPAR-gamma antagonist, GW 9662, on the protective effects of 15d-PGJ(2). GW 9662 (1 mg/kg administered i.p. 30 min before treatment with 15d-PGJ(2)) significantly antagonized the effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist and, thus, abolished the protective effect. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma.

Effect of cyclopentanone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-delta12,14PGJ2 on early functional recovery from experimental spinal cord injury

GENOVESE, T.;ESPOSITO, E.;MAZZON, E.;DI PAOLA, R.;MUIÀ, C.;P. , BRAMANTI;CUZZOCREA, S.
2008

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a member of the nuclear-receptor superfamily that binds to DNA with retinoid X receptors as PPAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers. Recent evidence also suggests that the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), which is a metabolite of the prostaglandin D(2), functions as an endogenous ligand for PPAR-gamma We postulated that 15d-PGJ(2) would attenuate inflammation, investigating the effects on the degree of experimental spinal cord trauma induced by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, production of a range of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, and apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ(2) reduced (1) spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), (3) nuclear factor-kappa B activation, (4) expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha, and (5) apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated uridine triphosphate end labeling staining, Bax, Bcl-2, and FAS-L expression). In a separate set of experiments, 15d-PGJ(2) significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). To elucidate whether the protective effects of 15d-PGJ(2) are related to activation of the PPAR-gamma receptor, we also investigated the effect of a PPAR-gamma antagonist, GW 9662, on the protective effects of 15d-PGJ(2). GW 9662 (1 mg/kg administered i.p. 30 min before treatment with 15d-PGJ(2)) significantly antagonized the effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist and, thus, abolished the protective effect. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/12672
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