The present study was carried out to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and other acute invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). Specifically, since both whole bacteria and their soluble products are often present in the blood in these conditions, we sought to detect possible synergic activities of somatic and extracellular products in inducing mediators release. For this purpose, whole blood cultures from healthy donors were incubated with different concentrations of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA), which is considered a major molecular effector of TSS, heat-killed GAS and cell-wall components such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and soluble peptidoglican (sPGN). Significant levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma were found in supernatants from cultures incubated with each of the four inducers alone. Whole GAS and both cell-wall components were more effective (p < 0.05) than SpeA in inducing cytokine release. Whole GAS, at weight basis, was a more potent inducer than LTA and sPGN and LTA, at weight basis, was a more potent inducer than sPGN. In order to verify possible additive or synergic effects of exotoxic and parietal compounds in inducing cytokine release, whole blood cells were incubated with mixtures of SpeA and LTA at different molecular ratio. TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma levels in supernatants were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in supernatants of cultures stimulated simultaneously with the two components than those of cultures stimulated with a single agent. Moreover, these levels were significantly higher than the sum of cytokine levels induced by single components. This study shows that parietal compounds can act in synergy with exotoxins in inducing the release of cytokines, which appear to be the major mediators of TSS.

Synergic activities of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and lipoteichoic acid in cytokine induction

CUSUMANO, Vitaliano;FERA, Maria Teresa;CARBONE, Maria Nunziata;
2000

Abstract

The present study was carried out to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and other acute invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). Specifically, since both whole bacteria and their soluble products are often present in the blood in these conditions, we sought to detect possible synergic activities of somatic and extracellular products in inducing mediators release. For this purpose, whole blood cultures from healthy donors were incubated with different concentrations of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA), which is considered a major molecular effector of TSS, heat-killed GAS and cell-wall components such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and soluble peptidoglican (sPGN). Significant levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma were found in supernatants from cultures incubated with each of the four inducers alone. Whole GAS and both cell-wall components were more effective (p < 0.05) than SpeA in inducing cytokine release. Whole GAS, at weight basis, was a more potent inducer than LTA and sPGN and LTA, at weight basis, was a more potent inducer than sPGN. In order to verify possible additive or synergic effects of exotoxic and parietal compounds in inducing cytokine release, whole blood cells were incubated with mixtures of SpeA and LTA at different molecular ratio. TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma levels in supernatants were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in supernatants of cultures stimulated simultaneously with the two components than those of cultures stimulated with a single agent. Moreover, these levels were significantly higher than the sum of cytokine levels induced by single components. This study shows that parietal compounds can act in synergy with exotoxins in inducing the release of cytokines, which appear to be the major mediators of TSS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/1585171
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