Increases in intracellular calcium and subsequent activation of calcium-activated proteases (e.g., calpains) may play a critical role in central nervous system injury. Several studies have implicated calpain activation following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study evaluated the effect of a calpain inhibitor administration following SAH in the rat on behavioral deficits (postinjury days 1-5, employing a battery of well-characterized assessment tasks), and blood-brain barrier permeability changes (48 h post-SAH, quantifying the microvascular alterations according to the extravasation of protein-bound Evans Blue using a spectrophotofluorimetric technique). Rats were injected with 400 microl of autologous blood into the cisterna magna to induce SAH. Within 5 min after the surgical procedure, Calpain Inhibitor II or vehicle was continuously administered intravenously for 2 days. Results indicated that Calpain Inhibitor II treatment after SAH significantly improved (a) beam balance time (day 1, p < 0.05), but not beam balance score, (b) latency to traverse the beam on days 1-4 (day 1-3, p < 0.001; day 4, p < 0.01), and (c) loss in body weight on days 4-5 (p < 0.05). Evans Blue dye extravasation was significantly less in SAH Calpain Inhibitor II-treated rats compared to SAH vehicle-treated rats in seven out of the eight brain regions studied (p < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05). These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of a relatively selective, membrane-permeant calpain inhibitor can significantly reduce some pathophysiological SAH consequences, and indicate that the inhibition of calpain may be a beneficial therapeutic approach to reduce post-SAH global brain dysfunction.

Systemic administration of a calpain inhibitor reduces behavioral deficits and blood-brain barrier permeability changes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat

GERMANO', Antonino Francesco;COSTA, Chiara;ANGILERI, Filippo;BRAMANTI, Placido;
2002

Abstract

Increases in intracellular calcium and subsequent activation of calcium-activated proteases (e.g., calpains) may play a critical role in central nervous system injury. Several studies have implicated calpain activation following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study evaluated the effect of a calpain inhibitor administration following SAH in the rat on behavioral deficits (postinjury days 1-5, employing a battery of well-characterized assessment tasks), and blood-brain barrier permeability changes (48 h post-SAH, quantifying the microvascular alterations according to the extravasation of protein-bound Evans Blue using a spectrophotofluorimetric technique). Rats were injected with 400 microl of autologous blood into the cisterna magna to induce SAH. Within 5 min after the surgical procedure, Calpain Inhibitor II or vehicle was continuously administered intravenously for 2 days. Results indicated that Calpain Inhibitor II treatment after SAH significantly improved (a) beam balance time (day 1, p < 0.05), but not beam balance score, (b) latency to traverse the beam on days 1-4 (day 1-3, p < 0.001; day 4, p < 0.01), and (c) loss in body weight on days 4-5 (p < 0.05). Evans Blue dye extravasation was significantly less in SAH Calpain Inhibitor II-treated rats compared to SAH vehicle-treated rats in seven out of the eight brain regions studied (p < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05). These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of a relatively selective, membrane-permeant calpain inhibitor can significantly reduce some pathophysiological SAH consequences, and indicate that the inhibition of calpain may be a beneficial therapeutic approach to reduce post-SAH global brain dysfunction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/1585204
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