PURPOSE: Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment to avoid subsequent testicular injury and infertility. PPARs are a family of nuclear hormone receptors belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. Three PPAR isotypes (alpha, beta/delta and gamma) encoded by separate genes and showing different tissue distribution patterns have been identified. PPARbeta/delta is expressed in testis and its role is largely unknown. We tested whether pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta might protect the testis from ischemia and reperfusion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1-hour testicular ischemia, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion rats served as controls. The animals were randomized to receive immediately after detorsion 1) L-165,041 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally), a potent agonist of PPARbeta/delta, 2) GW9662 (Calbiochem(R)) (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally), an antagonist of PPAR, 3) L-165,041 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) plus GW9662 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) concomitantly or 4) vehicle (1 ml/kg 10% dimethyl sulfoxide/NaCl solution). We evaluated testicular extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by Western blot. We also investigated PPARbeta/delta activation by Western blot, mRNA expression and organ damage. RESULTS: Testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury caused a significant increase in extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression in each testis. Furthermore, histological examination revealed marked damage. L-165,041 administration increased the PPARbeta/delta message and protein, inhibited extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression, and decreased histological damage. Concomitant administration of GW9662 reversed the protection exerted by PPARbeta/delta agonist. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that PPARbeta/delta agonists might be an attractive therapeutic candidate for managing testicular torsion.

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor beta/delta activation prevents extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and protects the testis from ischemia and reperfusion injury.

MINUTOLI, Letteria;ANTONUCCIO, Pietro;POLITO, FRANCESCA;BITTO, ALESSANDRA;SQUADRITO, Francesco;IRRERA, NATASHA;NICOTINA, Piero Antonio;FAZZARI, CARMINE;MONTALTO AS;DI STEFANO, VINCENZO;ROMEO, Carmelo;ALTAVILLA, Domenica
2009-01-01

Abstract

PURPOSE: Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment to avoid subsequent testicular injury and infertility. PPARs are a family of nuclear hormone receptors belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. Three PPAR isotypes (alpha, beta/delta and gamma) encoded by separate genes and showing different tissue distribution patterns have been identified. PPARbeta/delta is expressed in testis and its role is largely unknown. We tested whether pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta might protect the testis from ischemia and reperfusion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1-hour testicular ischemia, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion rats served as controls. The animals were randomized to receive immediately after detorsion 1) L-165,041 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally), a potent agonist of PPARbeta/delta, 2) GW9662 (Calbiochem(R)) (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally), an antagonist of PPAR, 3) L-165,041 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) plus GW9662 (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) concomitantly or 4) vehicle (1 ml/kg 10% dimethyl sulfoxide/NaCl solution). We evaluated testicular extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by Western blot. We also investigated PPARbeta/delta activation by Western blot, mRNA expression and organ damage. RESULTS: Testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury caused a significant increase in extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression in each testis. Furthermore, histological examination revealed marked damage. L-165,041 administration increased the PPARbeta/delta message and protein, inhibited extracellular signal regulated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression, and decreased histological damage. Concomitant administration of GW9662 reversed the protection exerted by PPARbeta/delta agonist. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that PPARbeta/delta agonists might be an attractive therapeutic candidate for managing testicular torsion.
2009
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/1890768
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