Proteolytic stress, resulting from the intracellular accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins, which exceed the capacity of the ubiquitin–proteasome system to degrade them, plays a relevant role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s chorea. Most of toxic protein aggregates are characterised by the presence of isopeptide bonds (cross-links) catalysed by transglutaminase activity; further, several disease-specific proteins— tau, amyloid-beta, alpha-synuclein, huntingtin—are in vitro and/or in vivo substrates of transglutaminase 2. These findings suggest an important role for transglutaminase 2-mediated cross-linking reactions in neurodegeneration. Therefore, the use of transglutaminase activity inhibitors could ameliorate neuronal cell death. New therapeutic perspectives also arise from the possibility to prevent or reduce protein aggregation by enhancing the activation of heat shock proteins, which have been shown to be potent suppressors of neurodegeneration in cell cultures/animal models. Interestingly, some heat shock proteins have been shown to be in vitro or in vivo crosslinked by transglutaminase 2. These observations seem to suggest that transglutaminase activity could be involved in the stabilization of intracellular protein aggregates by interfering with proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins. Further studies are needed to validate leading hypotheses and to open new prospects for developing therapeutic tools.

Critical role of transglutaminase and other stress proteins during neurodegenerative processes

CACCAMO, Daniela;CURRO', MONICA;FERLAZZO, NADIA;IENTILE, Riccardo
2010

Abstract

Proteolytic stress, resulting from the intracellular accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins, which exceed the capacity of the ubiquitin–proteasome system to degrade them, plays a relevant role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s chorea. Most of toxic protein aggregates are characterised by the presence of isopeptide bonds (cross-links) catalysed by transglutaminase activity; further, several disease-specific proteins— tau, amyloid-beta, alpha-synuclein, huntingtin—are in vitro and/or in vivo substrates of transglutaminase 2. These findings suggest an important role for transglutaminase 2-mediated cross-linking reactions in neurodegeneration. Therefore, the use of transglutaminase activity inhibitors could ameliorate neuronal cell death. New therapeutic perspectives also arise from the possibility to prevent or reduce protein aggregation by enhancing the activation of heat shock proteins, which have been shown to be potent suppressors of neurodegeneration in cell cultures/animal models. Interestingly, some heat shock proteins have been shown to be in vitro or in vivo crosslinked by transglutaminase 2. These observations seem to suggest that transglutaminase activity could be involved in the stabilization of intracellular protein aggregates by interfering with proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins. Further studies are needed to validate leading hypotheses and to open new prospects for developing therapeutic tools.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/1902852
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