The frontal sinus is located at the level of the junction between the naso-ethmoido-orbital region, the cranial vault and the skull base and plays a particularly important role in the biomechanics of the centro-facial region. It represents a locus minoris resistentiae placed between the fronto-orbital frame, whose resistance to trauma is good, and the thin posterior fronto-ethmoidal structures. Fractures of the frontal sinus more frequently involve the anterior wall of the frontal sinus and, occasionally, also the posterior wall and the base of the sinus. Where the fracture involves the anterior sinsu wall alone, surgical reduction is indicated to correct cosmetic defects arising from an altered bone profile, either via bicoronal access or by direct attack when there are skin lesions too. If the fracture extends to the posterior wall of the sinus without causing bone displacement or dural lesion, most authors agree that only the fractures of the anterior wall should be treated to avoid obliterating the sinus cavity. When the fracture of the posterior wall is comminuted with displacement of bone fragments, there are usually dural lesions too; in this event, once dural plasty has been performed, it is necessary to cranialize the frontal sinus by demolishing its posterior wall. Fractures of the skull base, associated with a high frequency of lesion or obstruction of the sinusal ostio and severe infective complication, require cranialization of the sinus that is also separated from the cranial cavity using a median-pedicled pericranial flap. To control the point of fracture, a rigid fixation system can be employed (microplates) or osteosynthesis with metal wires that restore the eurhythm of the frontal-orbital region and simultaneously guarantee good stability of the repositioned fragments.
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