Abstract Flavin-containing mono-oxygenases (FMOs) are a family of microsomal chemical- and drug-metabolizing enzymes. FMO3 is a major FMO form in adult mouse and human liver. FMO3 mutations have been associated with the incidence and severity of trimethylaminuria (TMAU), a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of the affected individual to metabolize the odorous trimethylamine to its non-odorous N-oxide. In addition to this primary genetic form, there are other forms of TMAU that support the hypothesis that FMO3 activity may be modulated by steroid hormones. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of Fmo3 gene expression by steroid hormones, we performed this study in an in vitro cellular system, mouse liver cells, and on the human FMO3 gene. Dexamethasone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, thyroid hormone, and progesterone had no effect on the accumulation of Fmo3 mRNA. The use of increased concentration of theophylline inhibited estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated transcription of Fmo3 mRNA. 17β-Estradiol inhibited Fmo3 mRNA accumulation. The use of ICI 164,384 abolished the inhibitory effect induced by estrogen. Gel-shift analyses showed a binding in the 5' region of the Fmo3 gene. This binding was abrogated by an excess of a cDNA containing an estrogen-responsive element. An estrogen-binding site was also present in the first intron of the human gene, as demonstrated by the gel-shift assay. Supershift experiments confirmed the binding of ERα in both mouse and human samples. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the binding of ERα in the promoter region of mouse Fmo3 and in the first intron of the human FMO3 gene. Thus, 17β-estradiol plays a fundamental role in the regulation of Fmo3 gene transcription.

Regulation of flavin-containing mono-oxygenase (Fmo3) gene expression by steroids in mice and humans

D'ANGELO, Rosalia;SIDOTI, Antonina
2014-01-01

Abstract

Abstract Flavin-containing mono-oxygenases (FMOs) are a family of microsomal chemical- and drug-metabolizing enzymes. FMO3 is a major FMO form in adult mouse and human liver. FMO3 mutations have been associated with the incidence and severity of trimethylaminuria (TMAU), a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of the affected individual to metabolize the odorous trimethylamine to its non-odorous N-oxide. In addition to this primary genetic form, there are other forms of TMAU that support the hypothesis that FMO3 activity may be modulated by steroid hormones. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of Fmo3 gene expression by steroid hormones, we performed this study in an in vitro cellular system, mouse liver cells, and on the human FMO3 gene. Dexamethasone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, thyroid hormone, and progesterone had no effect on the accumulation of Fmo3 mRNA. The use of increased concentration of theophylline inhibited estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated transcription of Fmo3 mRNA. 17β-Estradiol inhibited Fmo3 mRNA accumulation. The use of ICI 164,384 abolished the inhibitory effect induced by estrogen. Gel-shift analyses showed a binding in the 5' region of the Fmo3 gene. This binding was abrogated by an excess of a cDNA containing an estrogen-responsive element. An estrogen-binding site was also present in the first intron of the human gene, as demonstrated by the gel-shift assay. Supershift experiments confirmed the binding of ERα in both mouse and human samples. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the binding of ERα in the promoter region of mouse Fmo3 and in the first intron of the human FMO3 gene. Thus, 17β-estradiol plays a fundamental role in the regulation of Fmo3 gene transcription.
2014
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/2969968
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 9
  • Scopus 32
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact