Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel anticancer agents, recently introduced with the aim of boosting the immune response against tumors. ICIs are monoclonal autoantibodies that specifcally target inhibitory receptors on T cells: cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-1L). ICIs also generate peculiar dysimmune toxicities, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs), that can potentially afect any tissue, and some may be life-threatening if not promptly recognized. The endocrine and metabolic side efects of ICIs are reviewed here, with a particular focus on their clinical presentation and management. They are among the most frequent toxicities (around 10%) and include hypophysitis, thyroid disorders, adrenalitis, and diabetes mellitus. Treatment is based on the replacement of specifc hormone defcits, accompanied by immunosuppression (with corticosteroids or other drugs), depending on irAEs grade, often without the need of ICI withdrawal, except in more severe forms. Prompt recognition of endocrine and metabolic irAEs and adequate treatment allow the patients to continue a therapy they are benefting from. Endocrinologists, as an integral part of the multidisciplinary oncologic team, need to be familiar with the unique toxicity profle of these anticancer agents. Practical recommendations for their management are proposed.

Endocrine and metabolic adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors: an overview (what endocrinologists should know)

Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena
Primo
;
Campennì, A.;Giuffrida, Giuseppe
;
Trimarchi, F.;Cannavò, S.
Ultimo
2019-01-01

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel anticancer agents, recently introduced with the aim of boosting the immune response against tumors. ICIs are monoclonal autoantibodies that specifcally target inhibitory receptors on T cells: cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-1L). ICIs also generate peculiar dysimmune toxicities, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs), that can potentially afect any tissue, and some may be life-threatening if not promptly recognized. The endocrine and metabolic side efects of ICIs are reviewed here, with a particular focus on their clinical presentation and management. They are among the most frequent toxicities (around 10%) and include hypophysitis, thyroid disorders, adrenalitis, and diabetes mellitus. Treatment is based on the replacement of specifc hormone defcits, accompanied by immunosuppression (with corticosteroids or other drugs), depending on irAEs grade, often without the need of ICI withdrawal, except in more severe forms. Prompt recognition of endocrine and metabolic irAEs and adequate treatment allow the patients to continue a therapy they are benefting from. Endocrinologists, as an integral part of the multidisciplinary oncologic team, need to be familiar with the unique toxicity profle of these anticancer agents. Practical recommendations for their management are proposed.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3134011
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