The pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PSA) is still a matter of debate. A favourable genetic background is interwoven with environmental triggering factors in a complex network. Shared antigens and the recirculation of immune cells may account for the clinical manifestations, involving both cutaneous and articular sites. A favourable genetic background has been demonstrated in many genomic and proteomic studies, being associated to polymorphic variants of the genes coding for Major Histocompatibility Complex I and cytokine pathways. In genetic-predisposed individuals, triggering factors, like infections, dysbiosis or mechanic stress may promote the development of the disease. The subsequent activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, following the stimulation of Toll-like Receptors, culminates in the expansion of dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, monocytes, Natural Killer lymphocytes and other cells with the final inflammation and damage of skin, joint and enthesis. Particularly, the activation of CD4+ T helper 17 lymphocytes represents a crucial point in the pathogenesis of the disease. The participation of the visceral adipose tissue may amplify the inflammatory process by means of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Current therapeutic algorithms address the variety of clinical manifestations with a tailored strategy aiming to achieve the best control of the symptoms with minimal side effects. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs, biologic agents and synthetic small molecules offer different attack routes and may be chosen individually or in combination according to the phenotype of the disease.

Psoriatic arthritis: From pathogenesis to pharmacologic management

Talotta R.
Primo
;
Atzeni F.
;
2019-01-01

Abstract

The pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PSA) is still a matter of debate. A favourable genetic background is interwoven with environmental triggering factors in a complex network. Shared antigens and the recirculation of immune cells may account for the clinical manifestations, involving both cutaneous and articular sites. A favourable genetic background has been demonstrated in many genomic and proteomic studies, being associated to polymorphic variants of the genes coding for Major Histocompatibility Complex I and cytokine pathways. In genetic-predisposed individuals, triggering factors, like infections, dysbiosis or mechanic stress may promote the development of the disease. The subsequent activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, following the stimulation of Toll-like Receptors, culminates in the expansion of dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, monocytes, Natural Killer lymphocytes and other cells with the final inflammation and damage of skin, joint and enthesis. Particularly, the activation of CD4+ T helper 17 lymphocytes represents a crucial point in the pathogenesis of the disease. The participation of the visceral adipose tissue may amplify the inflammatory process by means of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Current therapeutic algorithms address the variety of clinical manifestations with a tailored strategy aiming to achieve the best control of the symptoms with minimal side effects. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs, biologic agents and synthetic small molecules offer different attack routes and may be chosen individually or in combination according to the phenotype of the disease.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3149276
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