Background: Oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are involved in migraine and endogenous antioxidant defense system has a role in the prevention of hyperalgesia in migraine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the fumaric acid esters (FAEs), dimethyl fumarate, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf-2/ARE) pathway-mediated, in regulating the hypersensitivity in a mouse model of nitroglycerine (NTG)-induced migraine. Methods: Mice were orally administered with DMF at the doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, 5 min after NTG intraperitoneal injections. We performed histological and molecular analysis on the whole brain and behavioral tests after 4 h by NTG-migraine induction. The expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) subunit p65, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha (IκBα), inducible nitrite oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), Nrf-2, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were detected by Western blot. Tail flick, hot plate, orofacial formalin, and photophobia tests were used to evaluate migraine-like pain and migraine-related light sensitivity. Moreover, we evaluate Nrf-2-dependent mechanism by the in vitro stimulation of cells extracted by trigeminal ganglia with diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The cells were pre-treated with DMF and an antagonist of Nrf-2, trigonelline (TR) 2 h before DETA/NO stimulation. Results: DMF treatment notably reduced histological damage as showed by cresyl violet staining; also, regulating both NF-κB and Nrf-2 pathway, DMF treatment decreased the severity of inflammation and increased the protective antioxidant action. Moreover, the headache was significantly reduced. The protective effect of DMF treatment, via Nrf-2, was confirmed in in vitro studies, through inhibition of Nrf-2 by trigonelline. Cytotoxicity, iNOS, and MnSOD expression were evaluated. Conclusion: These results provided the evidence that DMF, by Nrf-2 modulation, has a protective effect on central sensitization induced by NTG, suggesting a new insight into the potential application of DMF as novel candidates in drug development for migraine.

Dimethyl fumarate alleviates the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine in mice

Casili G.
Co-primo
;
Lanza M.
Co-primo
;
Filippone A.;Campolo M.;Paterniti I.;Cuzzocrea S.
Penultimo
;
Esposito E.
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are involved in migraine and endogenous antioxidant defense system has a role in the prevention of hyperalgesia in migraine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the fumaric acid esters (FAEs), dimethyl fumarate, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf-2/ARE) pathway-mediated, in regulating the hypersensitivity in a mouse model of nitroglycerine (NTG)-induced migraine. Methods: Mice were orally administered with DMF at the doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, 5 min after NTG intraperitoneal injections. We performed histological and molecular analysis on the whole brain and behavioral tests after 4 h by NTG-migraine induction. The expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) subunit p65, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha (IκBα), inducible nitrite oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), Nrf-2, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were detected by Western blot. Tail flick, hot plate, orofacial formalin, and photophobia tests were used to evaluate migraine-like pain and migraine-related light sensitivity. Moreover, we evaluate Nrf-2-dependent mechanism by the in vitro stimulation of cells extracted by trigeminal ganglia with diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The cells were pre-treated with DMF and an antagonist of Nrf-2, trigonelline (TR) 2 h before DETA/NO stimulation. Results: DMF treatment notably reduced histological damage as showed by cresyl violet staining; also, regulating both NF-κB and Nrf-2 pathway, DMF treatment decreased the severity of inflammation and increased the protective antioxidant action. Moreover, the headache was significantly reduced. The protective effect of DMF treatment, via Nrf-2, was confirmed in in vitro studies, through inhibition of Nrf-2 by trigonelline. Cytotoxicity, iNOS, and MnSOD expression were evaluated. Conclusion: These results provided the evidence that DMF, by Nrf-2 modulation, has a protective effect on central sensitization induced by NTG, suggesting a new insight into the potential application of DMF as novel candidates in drug development for migraine.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3158350
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