The human microbiota is made up of the fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses cohabiting within the human body. An altered microbiota can provoke diseases such as cancer. The mechanisms by which a modified microbiota can intervene in the onset and progression of neoplastic diseases are manifold. For instance, these include the effects on the immune system and the onset of obesity. A different mechanism seems to be constituted by the continuous and bidirectional relationships existing between microbiota and miRNAs. MiRNAs emerged as a novel group of small endogenous non-coding RNAs from that control gene expression. Several works seem to confirm the presence of a close connection between microbiota and miRNAs. Although the main literature data concern the correlations between microbiota, miRNAs and colon cancer, several researches have revealed the presence of connections with other types of tumour, including the ovarian tumour, cervical carcinoma, hepatic carcinoma, neoplastic pathologies of the central nervous system and the possible implication of the microbiota-miRNAs system on the response to the treatment of neoplastic pathologies. In this review, we summarise the physiological and pathological functions of the microbiota on cancer onset by governing miRNA production. A better knowledge of the bidirectional relationships existing between microbiota and miRNAs could provide new markers for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of cancer and seems to be a promising approach for antagomir-guided approaches as therapeutic agents.

Interactions between the micrornas and microbiota in cancer development: Roles and therapeutic opportunities

Allegra A.
;
Musolino C.;Gangemi S.
2020-01-01

Abstract

The human microbiota is made up of the fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses cohabiting within the human body. An altered microbiota can provoke diseases such as cancer. The mechanisms by which a modified microbiota can intervene in the onset and progression of neoplastic diseases are manifold. For instance, these include the effects on the immune system and the onset of obesity. A different mechanism seems to be constituted by the continuous and bidirectional relationships existing between microbiota and miRNAs. MiRNAs emerged as a novel group of small endogenous non-coding RNAs from that control gene expression. Several works seem to confirm the presence of a close connection between microbiota and miRNAs. Although the main literature data concern the correlations between microbiota, miRNAs and colon cancer, several researches have revealed the presence of connections with other types of tumour, including the ovarian tumour, cervical carcinoma, hepatic carcinoma, neoplastic pathologies of the central nervous system and the possible implication of the microbiota-miRNAs system on the response to the treatment of neoplastic pathologies. In this review, we summarise the physiological and pathological functions of the microbiota on cancer onset by governing miRNA production. A better knowledge of the bidirectional relationships existing between microbiota and miRNAs could provide new markers for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of cancer and seems to be a promising approach for antagomir-guided approaches as therapeutic agents.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3162787
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