What is known and objective: Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, and antidepressant drugs are frequently used in combination due to the high and growing incidence of cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders worldwide. Several aspects on management, the risk of adverse events (AEs) occurrence and the potential clinically relevant pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between these two classes have not been well investigated. The aim of the present review was to describe the PK and PD interactions, of clinical relevance, between statins and antidepressant drugs and provide a comprehensive overview of their pharmacological features for appropriate multiple drug regimens. Methods: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of PubMed and the Cochrane databases focusing on clinically relevant DDIs between statins and antidepressants. Only papers in English were included in the search. Results and discussion: Pharmacodynamic (PD) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are unlikely to occur as statins are highly selective inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase with no relevant effect on other enzymes or receptor systems. Despite the numerous PK studies on individual drugs belonging to statins and antidepressant agents, only a few case reports regarding specific DDIs are present in the literature and no clinical studies have been performed. PK data allow to speculate on potential DDIs, comparing the metabolic pathways, intestinal and liver transporters and elimination routes. Overall, second-generation antidepressants, in particular citalopram, escitalopram, mirtazapine, reboxetine and venlafaxine, have weak inhibitory effects on various cytochrome (CYP) isozymes and seem to have a more advantageous DDIs profile in vivo. Conversely, nefazodone, fluoxetine, paroxetine and fluvoxamine influence considerably CYPs activity with potential effects on statins plasma levels, although pravastatin, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin are not susceptible to inhibition by any CYP. Albeit no studies have been performed on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), interactions of clinical relevance are unlikely. What is new and conclusion: Although DDIs with antidepressants are potentially, but rarely clinically significant, the use of antidepressants with a more favourable drug interaction profile is advisable. An evaluation on DDIs between these drugs can be useful for future PK/PD studies on drug-drug interaction to provide clinicians with more data for appropriate multiple drug regimens.

Clinically Relevant Drug Interactions Between Statins and Antidepressants

Edoardo Spina;
2019-01-01

Abstract

What is known and objective: Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, and antidepressant drugs are frequently used in combination due to the high and growing incidence of cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders worldwide. Several aspects on management, the risk of adverse events (AEs) occurrence and the potential clinically relevant pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between these two classes have not been well investigated. The aim of the present review was to describe the PK and PD interactions, of clinical relevance, between statins and antidepressant drugs and provide a comprehensive overview of their pharmacological features for appropriate multiple drug regimens. Methods: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of PubMed and the Cochrane databases focusing on clinically relevant DDIs between statins and antidepressants. Only papers in English were included in the search. Results and discussion: Pharmacodynamic (PD) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are unlikely to occur as statins are highly selective inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase with no relevant effect on other enzymes or receptor systems. Despite the numerous PK studies on individual drugs belonging to statins and antidepressant agents, only a few case reports regarding specific DDIs are present in the literature and no clinical studies have been performed. PK data allow to speculate on potential DDIs, comparing the metabolic pathways, intestinal and liver transporters and elimination routes. Overall, second-generation antidepressants, in particular citalopram, escitalopram, mirtazapine, reboxetine and venlafaxine, have weak inhibitory effects on various cytochrome (CYP) isozymes and seem to have a more advantageous DDIs profile in vivo. Conversely, nefazodone, fluoxetine, paroxetine and fluvoxamine influence considerably CYPs activity with potential effects on statins plasma levels, although pravastatin, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin are not susceptible to inhibition by any CYP. Albeit no studies have been performed on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), interactions of clinical relevance are unlikely. What is new and conclusion: Although DDIs with antidepressants are potentially, but rarely clinically significant, the use of antidepressants with a more favourable drug interaction profile is advisable. An evaluation on DDIs between these drugs can be useful for future PK/PD studies on drug-drug interaction to provide clinicians with more data for appropriate multiple drug regimens.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3168507
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