The RET proto-oncogene has been well-studied. RET is involved in many different physiological and developmental functions. When altered, RET mutations influence disease in a variety of organ systems from Hirschsprung's disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Changes in RET expression have been discovered in 30–70% of invasive breast cancers and 50–60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in addition to colorectal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and small intestine neuroendocrine tumors. RET mutations have been associated with tumor proliferation, invasion, and migration. RET fusions or rearrangements are somatic juxtapositions of 5′ sequences from other genes with 3′ RET sequences encoding tyrosine kinase. RET rearrangements occur in approximately 2.5–73% of sporadic PTC and 1–3% of NSCLC patients. The most common RET fusions are CDCC6-RET and NCOA4-RET in PTC and KIF5B-RET in NSCLC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are drugs that target kinases such as RET in RET-driven (RET-mutation or RET-fusion-positive) disease. Multikinase inhibitors (MKI) target various kinases and other receptors. Several MKIs are FDA-approved for cancer therapy (sunitinib, sorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, regorafenib, ponatinib, lenvatinib, alectinib) and non-oncologic disease (nintedanib). Selective RET inhibitor drugs LOXO-292 (selpercatinib) and BLU-667 (pralsetinib) are also undergoing phase I/II and I clinical trials, respectively, with preliminary results demonstrating partial response and low incidence of serious adverse events. RET fusions provide a viable therapeutic target for oncologic treatment, and further study is warranted into the prevalence and pathogenesis of RET fusions as well as development of current and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

RET fusions in solid tumors

Adamo V.;
2019-01-01

Abstract

The RET proto-oncogene has been well-studied. RET is involved in many different physiological and developmental functions. When altered, RET mutations influence disease in a variety of organ systems from Hirschsprung's disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Changes in RET expression have been discovered in 30–70% of invasive breast cancers and 50–60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in addition to colorectal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and small intestine neuroendocrine tumors. RET mutations have been associated with tumor proliferation, invasion, and migration. RET fusions or rearrangements are somatic juxtapositions of 5′ sequences from other genes with 3′ RET sequences encoding tyrosine kinase. RET rearrangements occur in approximately 2.5–73% of sporadic PTC and 1–3% of NSCLC patients. The most common RET fusions are CDCC6-RET and NCOA4-RET in PTC and KIF5B-RET in NSCLC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are drugs that target kinases such as RET in RET-driven (RET-mutation or RET-fusion-positive) disease. Multikinase inhibitors (MKI) target various kinases and other receptors. Several MKIs are FDA-approved for cancer therapy (sunitinib, sorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, regorafenib, ponatinib, lenvatinib, alectinib) and non-oncologic disease (nintedanib). Selective RET inhibitor drugs LOXO-292 (selpercatinib) and BLU-667 (pralsetinib) are also undergoing phase I/II and I clinical trials, respectively, with preliminary results demonstrating partial response and low incidence of serious adverse events. RET fusions provide a viable therapeutic target for oncologic treatment, and further study is warranted into the prevalence and pathogenesis of RET fusions as well as development of current and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3169565
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