Inflammation is a protective reaction activated in response to detrimental stimuli, such as dead cells, irritants or pathogens, by the evolutionarily conserved immune system and is regulated by the host. The inflammasomes are recognized as innate immune system sensors and receptors that manage the activation of caspase-1 and stimulate inflammation response. They have been associated with several inflammatory disorders. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the most well characterized. It is so called because NLRP3 belongs to the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs). Recent evidence has greatly improved our understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated. Additionally, increasing data in animal models, supported by human studies, strongly implicate the involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of disorders with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic pathologies (obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis), cardiovascular diseases (ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease), inflammatory issues (liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, gut microbiome, rheumatoid arthritis) and neurologic disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders), compared to other molecular platforms. This review will provide a focus on the available knowledge about the NLRP3 inflammasome role in these pathologies and describe the balance between the activation of the harmful and beneficial inflammasome so that new therapies can be created for patients with these diseases.

Focus on the Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Diseases

Fusco, Roberta
Co-primo
;
Siracusa, Rosalba
Co-primo
;
Genovese, Tiziana;Cuzzocrea, Salvatore
Penultimo
;
Di Paola, Rosanna
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

Inflammation is a protective reaction activated in response to detrimental stimuli, such as dead cells, irritants or pathogens, by the evolutionarily conserved immune system and is regulated by the host. The inflammasomes are recognized as innate immune system sensors and receptors that manage the activation of caspase-1 and stimulate inflammation response. They have been associated with several inflammatory disorders. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the most well characterized. It is so called because NLRP3 belongs to the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs). Recent evidence has greatly improved our understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated. Additionally, increasing data in animal models, supported by human studies, strongly implicate the involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of disorders with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic pathologies (obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis), cardiovascular diseases (ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease), inflammatory issues (liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, gut microbiome, rheumatoid arthritis) and neurologic disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders), compared to other molecular platforms. This review will provide a focus on the available knowledge about the NLRP3 inflammasome role in these pathologies and describe the balance between the activation of the harmful and beneficial inflammasome so that new therapies can be created for patients with these diseases.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3170123
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