Systemic inflammation and immune activation are striking features of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The rs2298383 SNP of ADORA2A gene, coding for adenosine receptor type 2A (A2AR), has been involved in aberrant immune activation. Here we aimed to assess the prevalence of this SNP in 279 MCS patients and 238 healthy subjects, and its influence on ADORA2A, IFNG and IL4 transcript amounts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of randomly selected patients (n = 70) and controls (n = 66) having different ADORA2A genotypes. The ADORA2A rs2298383 TT mutated genotype, significantly more frequent in MCS patients than in controls, was associated with a three-fold increased risk for MCS (O.R. = 2.86; C.I. 95% 1.99-4.12, p < 0.0001), while the CT genotype, highly prevalent among controls, resulted to be protective (O.R. = 0.33; C.I. 95% 0.224-0.475, p < 0.0001). Notably, ADORA2A mRNA levels were significantly lower, while IFNG, but not IL4, mRNA levels were significantly higher in TT MCS patients compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between ADORA2A and both IFNG and IL4, while a significant positive correlation was found between IFNG and IL4. These findings suggest that A2AR defective signaling may play a relevant role in PBMC shift towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype in MCS patients.
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