Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is a congenital defect affecting brain microvasculature, characterized by a direct shunt from arterioles to venules. Germline mutations in several genes related to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/BMP signaling are linked to both sporadic and hereditary phenotypes. However, the low incidence of inherited cases makes the genetic bases of the disease unclear. To increase this knowledge, we performed a whole exome sequencing on five patients, on DNA purified by peripheral blood. Variants were filtered based on frequency and functional class. Those selected were validated by Sanger sequencing. Genes carrying selected variants were prioritized to relate these genes with those already known to be linked to bAVM development. Most of the prioritized genes showed a correlation with the TGF-βNotch signaling and vessel morphogenesis. However, two novel pathways related to cilia morphogenesis and ion homeostasis were enriched in mutated genes. These results suggest novel insights on sporadic bAVM onset and confirm its genetic heterogeneity. The high frequency of germline variants in genes related to TGF-β signaling allows us to hypothesize bAVM as a complex trait resulting from the co-existence of low-penetrance loci. Deeper knowledge on bAVM genetics can improve personalized diagnosis and can be helpful with genotype-phenotype correlations.

Germline Mutation Enrichment in Pathways Controlling Endothelial Cell Homeostasis in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation: Implication for Molecular Diagnosis

Scimone C.
Conceptualization
;
Granata F.
Investigation
;
Longo M.
Investigation
;
Mormina E.
Resources
;
Donato L.
Methodology
;
Sidoti A.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
D'Angelo R.
Supervision
2020-01-01

Abstract

Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is a congenital defect affecting brain microvasculature, characterized by a direct shunt from arterioles to venules. Germline mutations in several genes related to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/BMP signaling are linked to both sporadic and hereditary phenotypes. However, the low incidence of inherited cases makes the genetic bases of the disease unclear. To increase this knowledge, we performed a whole exome sequencing on five patients, on DNA purified by peripheral blood. Variants were filtered based on frequency and functional class. Those selected were validated by Sanger sequencing. Genes carrying selected variants were prioritized to relate these genes with those already known to be linked to bAVM development. Most of the prioritized genes showed a correlation with the TGF-βNotch signaling and vessel morphogenesis. However, two novel pathways related to cilia morphogenesis and ion homeostasis were enriched in mutated genes. These results suggest novel insights on sporadic bAVM onset and confirm its genetic heterogeneity. The high frequency of germline variants in genes related to TGF-β signaling allows us to hypothesize bAVM as a complex trait resulting from the co-existence of low-penetrance loci. Deeper knowledge on bAVM genetics can improve personalized diagnosis and can be helpful with genotype-phenotype correlations.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3171252
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