OBJECTIVE: Testicular cancer is a relatively rare neoplasia, with an incidence of about 1,5% among male malignancies, usually in the third and fourth decade of life. Although several histological variants are known, with some histotypes affecting older patients (e.g., spermatocytic seminoma), there is a clear predominance (90-95%) of germ cell tumors among young adults patients1. Testicular Germ Cell Tumor (TGCT), undoubtedly the seminoma histological variant more than non-seminoma one, is definitely a highly curable disease, with a distinctive sensitivity to cisplatin-based therapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy) and an outstanding cure rate of nearly 80% even for patients with advanced disease. So far, clinical and pathohistological features supported our efforts to choose the best treatment option for patients suffering from this malignancy, but we don't clearly enough know molecular and pathological features underlying different clinical behaviors, mostly in early-stage disease: by improving this knowledge, we should better "shape" therapeutic or surveillance programs for each patient, also in order to avoid unnecessary, if not harmful, treatments.
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