Natural approaches to conventional pharmaceutical treatments for urinary tract infections (UTIs) have focused attention toward reducing the colonization of intestinal Escheri-chia coli reservoirs, the cause of ascending and hematogenous UTIs. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of xyloglucan and xyloglucan plus gelose on intestinal and urinary epithelia in an in vivo E. coli infection model. Preventative xyloglucan and xyloglucan plus gelose oral treatments were performed by gavage 2 days before E. coli administration and every day until day 7. In vitro, xyloglucan had no effect on bacterial growth, cell morphology, or integrity. The results clearly demonstrated the protective barrier effect of xyloglucan in the bladder and intestine, as evidenced by a reduction in histological changes, neutrophil infiltration, and tight junction permeability in the intestine following E. coli infection. The potential beneficial effect of xyloglucan in preventing UTIs was supported by a reduction of E. coli-positive colony-forming units in the urinary tract. We consider xyloglucan in association with gelose to be an effective oral medical device for the prevention of extraintestinal UTIs.
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