The recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K-DOQI) guidelines suggest an early start of protein restriction, raising issues on willingness to change dietary habits. The aim of this exploratory real-life study was to report on a test of dietary products (protein-free, not previously available in France) in a large, mainly elderly, chronic kidney disease (CKD) population (220 patients, median age: 77.5 years, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI): seven, malnutrition inflammation score (MIS): five, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 26 mL/min, also as a means to tailor further implementation strategies. Forty-nine patients (22.28%) were considered to be poor candidates for the trial (metabolically unstable or with psychological, psychiatric or logistic barriers); of the remaining 171, 80.70% agreed to participate. Patients to whom the diet was not proposed had lower eGFR and higher comorbidity (eGFR 21 vs. 27 p = 0.021; MIS six vs. four p: <0.001). Patients who refused were 10 years older than those who accepted (83 vs. 73 years p < 0.001), with a higher CCI (eight vs. seven p = 0.008) and MIS (five vs. four p = 0.01). In the logistic regression, only age was significantly associated with refusal to participate (Odds ratio (OR): 5.408; 95% CI: 1.894 to 15.447). No difference was found according to low/intermediate/high frequency of weekly use of protein-free food. Our study suggests that most of the patients are ready to test new diet approaches. Only old age correlated with refusal, but frequency of implementation depended on individual preferences, underlying the importance of tailored approaches to improve adherence.
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