In developed countries, endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecologic malignancy in postmenopausal women. At the same time, EC has become one of the most common cancers in numerous developing countries, probably influenced by global epidemic of obesity. The majority of patients have low-grade endometrioid cancer with a high 5-year survival rate, but with high-risk EC, the survival rates are still rather low. However, despite intensive research in last decades, our knowledge of the mechanisms, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment have not significantly improved. The standard treatment of all types of EC is still a traditional combination of surgery, irradiation and/or chemotherapy, despite the fact that each of these options is not without having some negative side effects. Despite the fact that on the molecular level, EC is relatively well-studied, but the efforts to transform these findings into either diagnosis or therapies of EC remain elusive. In addition, some research into risk factors involved in the development or progression of EC seems to be more a fishing expedition than a well thought-out approach. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the search for biomarkers and prognostic markers and to discuss the progress in EC treatment.
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