Abstract Objective: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were developed to avoid the limita- tions of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). DOACs are associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and a smaller number of intracranial haemorrhages than VKAs. Therefore, it is important to deepen our knowledge of their safety profiles. The aim of this study was thus to analyse adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports on DOACs and VKAs using the Sicilian Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS) database. Methods: All ADR reports with DOACs and VKAs as suspected drugs that were en- tered into the Sicilian SRS database during the period 2001–2019 were selected. In detail, all reports with the following single active substances were included: dabi- gatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban; acenocoumarol and warfarin were included as a comparator group. Descriptive statistical methodology was used to evaluate characteristics of the reported cases with a case-by-case assessment. Results and Discussion: Out of 521 reports related to anticoagulants, 444 (85.2%) and 77 (14.8%) involved DOACs and VKAs, respectively. DOAC-related reports were mainly of gastrointestinal disorders. In contrast, VKAs were mostly associated with blood and lymphatic system disorders, injury, investigations and vascular disorders. Many more cases of ADRs in the form of gastrointestinal disorders concerned dabi- gatran etexilate (n = 179, 73.7%) than the other DOACs, while ADRs in the form of blood disorders were mainly associated with acenocoumarol (n = 27, 57.4%). The most commonly reported Preferred Terms for DOACs were dyspepsia (n = 89, 17.1%), upper abdominal pain (n = 41, 9.2%) and pruritus (n = 26, 5.8%), whereas for VKAs, they were anaemia (n = 21, 27.3%) and hypocoagulable state (n = 18, 3.5%). Potentially inter- acting concomitant medications particularly included antithrombotic agents (n = 19, 4.3%) for DOACs and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (n = 37, 48.1%) and antithrom- botic agents (n = 13, 16.9%) for VKAs. Conclusion: The ADRs most commonly associated with DOACs, especially dabigatran, were gastrointestinal disorders, particularly gastrointestinal bleeding. Our study also highlights the potential role of drug-drug interactions in the ADRs. The cases of gas- trointestinal bleeding highlight the need for careful prescribing of DOACs and use of potentially interacting concomitant drugs.

Adverse drug reactions with oral anticoagulants: data from sicilian spontaneous reporting system database

Barbieri, Maria Antonietta;Cutroneo, Paola Maria;Cicala, Giuseppe;Battaglia, Alessandro;Santoro, Vincenza;Andò, Giuseppe;Spina, Edoardo
2021

Abstract

Abstract Objective: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were developed to avoid the limita- tions of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). DOACs are associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and a smaller number of intracranial haemorrhages than VKAs. Therefore, it is important to deepen our knowledge of their safety profiles. The aim of this study was thus to analyse adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports on DOACs and VKAs using the Sicilian Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS) database. Methods: All ADR reports with DOACs and VKAs as suspected drugs that were en- tered into the Sicilian SRS database during the period 2001–2019 were selected. In detail, all reports with the following single active substances were included: dabi- gatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban; acenocoumarol and warfarin were included as a comparator group. Descriptive statistical methodology was used to evaluate characteristics of the reported cases with a case-by-case assessment. Results and Discussion: Out of 521 reports related to anticoagulants, 444 (85.2%) and 77 (14.8%) involved DOACs and VKAs, respectively. DOAC-related reports were mainly of gastrointestinal disorders. In contrast, VKAs were mostly associated with blood and lymphatic system disorders, injury, investigations and vascular disorders. Many more cases of ADRs in the form of gastrointestinal disorders concerned dabi- gatran etexilate (n = 179, 73.7%) than the other DOACs, while ADRs in the form of blood disorders were mainly associated with acenocoumarol (n = 27, 57.4%). The most commonly reported Preferred Terms for DOACs were dyspepsia (n = 89, 17.1%), upper abdominal pain (n = 41, 9.2%) and pruritus (n = 26, 5.8%), whereas for VKAs, they were anaemia (n = 21, 27.3%) and hypocoagulable state (n = 18, 3.5%). Potentially inter- acting concomitant medications particularly included antithrombotic agents (n = 19, 4.3%) for DOACs and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (n = 37, 48.1%) and antithrom- botic agents (n = 13, 16.9%) for VKAs. Conclusion: The ADRs most commonly associated with DOACs, especially dabigatran, were gastrointestinal disorders, particularly gastrointestinal bleeding. Our study also highlights the potential role of drug-drug interactions in the ADRs. The cases of gas- trointestinal bleeding highlight the need for careful prescribing of DOACs and use of potentially interacting concomitant drugs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/3190936
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