Chronic kidney disease is associated with altered lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Although it is though that hyperlipemia is a consequence of kidney dysfunction, several lines of evidence support that hyperlipidemia may contribute to the onset and progression of kidney disease, also in diabetes. This review describes the results of recent observational studies supporting the concept that glucose is only partly responsible for kidney damage onset, while a cluster of factors, including hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, could play a relevant role in inducing onset and progression of DKD. We also report the results of randomized clinical trials investigating in type 2 diabetic patients the role of drug improvement of hypertriglyceridemia on renal outcomes. Finally, we discuss putative mechanisms linking hyperlipidemia (i.e. hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL cholesterol) with kidney disease.
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