The invertebrate innate immunity is a crucial characteristic that represents a valuable basis for studying common biological responses to environmental pollutants. Cell defence mechanisms are key players in protecting the organism from infections and foreign materials. Many haemocyte-associated immunological parameters have been reported to be immunologically sensitive to aquatic toxins (natural or artificial). Environmental plastic pollution poses a global threat to ecosystems and human health due to plastic vast and extensive use as additives in various consumer products. In recent years, studies have been done to evaluate the effects of plasticizers on humans and the environment, and their transmission and presence in water, air, and indoor dust, and so forth. Hence, the development of biomarkers that evaluate biological responses to different pollutants are essential to obtain important information on plasticizers' sublethal effects. This review analyses the current advances in the adverse effects of plasticizers (as emerging contaminants), such as immunological response disruption. The review also shows a critical analysis of the effects of the most widely used plasticizers on haemocytes. The advantages of an integrative approach that uses chemical, genetic, and immunomarker assays to monitor toxicity are highlighted. All these factors are imperative to ponder when designing toxicity studies to recognize the potential effects of plasticizers like bisphenol A and phthalates.

Impact of phthalates and bisphenols plasticizers on haemocyte immune function of aquatic invertebrates: A review on physiological, biochemical, and genomic aspects

Faggio, Caterina
2021-01-01

Abstract

The invertebrate innate immunity is a crucial characteristic that represents a valuable basis for studying common biological responses to environmental pollutants. Cell defence mechanisms are key players in protecting the organism from infections and foreign materials. Many haemocyte-associated immunological parameters have been reported to be immunologically sensitive to aquatic toxins (natural or artificial). Environmental plastic pollution poses a global threat to ecosystems and human health due to plastic vast and extensive use as additives in various consumer products. In recent years, studies have been done to evaluate the effects of plasticizers on humans and the environment, and their transmission and presence in water, air, and indoor dust, and so forth. Hence, the development of biomarkers that evaluate biological responses to different pollutants are essential to obtain important information on plasticizers' sublethal effects. This review analyses the current advances in the adverse effects of plasticizers (as emerging contaminants), such as immunological response disruption. The review also shows a critical analysis of the effects of the most widely used plasticizers on haemocytes. The advantages of an integrative approach that uses chemical, genetic, and immunomarker assays to monitor toxicity are highlighted. All these factors are imperative to ponder when designing toxicity studies to recognize the potential effects of plasticizers like bisphenol A and phthalates.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3205756
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