Legionella is able to remain in water as free‐living planktonic bacteria or to grow within biofilms that adhere to the pipes. It is also able to enter amoebas or to switch into a viable but not culturable (VBNC) state, which contributes to its resistance to harsh conditions and hinders its detection in water. Factors regulating Legionella growth, such as environmental conditions, type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, presence of protozoa, spatial location of microorganisms, metal plumbing components, and associated corrosion products are important for Legionella survival and growth. Finally, water treatment and distribution conditions may affect each of these factors. A deeper comprehension of Legionella interactions in water distribution systems with the environmental conditions is needed for better control of the coloniza-tion. To this purpose, the implementation of water management plans is the main prevention measure against Legionella. A water management program requires coordination among building managers, health care providers, and Public Health professionals. The review reports a compre-hensive view of the state of the art and the promising perspectives of both monitoring and disin-fection methods against Legionella in water, focusing on the main current challenges concerning the Public Health sector.

Environmental management of legionella in domestic water systems: Consolidated and innovative approaches for disinfection methods and risk assessment

Lagana' Pasqualina;
2021

Abstract

Legionella is able to remain in water as free‐living planktonic bacteria or to grow within biofilms that adhere to the pipes. It is also able to enter amoebas or to switch into a viable but not culturable (VBNC) state, which contributes to its resistance to harsh conditions and hinders its detection in water. Factors regulating Legionella growth, such as environmental conditions, type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, presence of protozoa, spatial location of microorganisms, metal plumbing components, and associated corrosion products are important for Legionella survival and growth. Finally, water treatment and distribution conditions may affect each of these factors. A deeper comprehension of Legionella interactions in water distribution systems with the environmental conditions is needed for better control of the coloniza-tion. To this purpose, the implementation of water management plans is the main prevention measure against Legionella. A water management program requires coordination among building managers, health care providers, and Public Health professionals. The review reports a compre-hensive view of the state of the art and the promising perspectives of both monitoring and disin-fection methods against Legionella in water, focusing on the main current challenges concerning the Public Health sector.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/3205822
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