Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic autoinflammatory disease with autosomal recessive transmission, characterized by periodic fever attacks with self-limited serositis. Secondary amyloidosis due to amyloid A renal deposition represents the most fearsome complication in up to 8.6% of patients. Amyloidosis A typically reveals a nephrotic syndrome with a rapid progression to end-stage kidney disease still. It may also involve the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Other glomerulonephritis may equally affect FMF patients, including vasculitis such as IgA vasculitis and polyarteritis nodosa. A differential diagnosis among different primary and secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome is mandatory to determine the right therapeutic choice for the patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria is the first signal of kidney impairment in FMF, but new markers such as Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) may radically change renal outcomes. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is currently considered a reliable indicator of subclinical inflammation and compliance to therapy. According to new evi-dence, SAA may also have an active pathogenic role in the regulation of NALP3 inflammasome activity as well as being a predictor of the clinical course of AA amyloidosis. Beyond colchicine, new monoclonal antibodies such as IL-1 inhibitors anakinra and canakinumab, and anti-IL-6 tocili-zumab may represent a key in optimizing FMF treatment and prevention or control of AA amyloi-dosis.

Amyloidosis and glomerular diseases in familial mediterranean fever

Siligato R.;Gembillo G.;Calabrese V.;Conti G.;Santoro D.
2021

Abstract

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic autoinflammatory disease with autosomal recessive transmission, characterized by periodic fever attacks with self-limited serositis. Secondary amyloidosis due to amyloid A renal deposition represents the most fearsome complication in up to 8.6% of patients. Amyloidosis A typically reveals a nephrotic syndrome with a rapid progression to end-stage kidney disease still. It may also involve the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Other glomerulonephritis may equally affect FMF patients, including vasculitis such as IgA vasculitis and polyarteritis nodosa. A differential diagnosis among different primary and secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome is mandatory to determine the right therapeutic choice for the patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria is the first signal of kidney impairment in FMF, but new markers such as Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) may radically change renal outcomes. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is currently considered a reliable indicator of subclinical inflammation and compliance to therapy. According to new evi-dence, SAA may also have an active pathogenic role in the regulation of NALP3 inflammasome activity as well as being a predictor of the clinical course of AA amyloidosis. Beyond colchicine, new monoclonal antibodies such as IL-1 inhibitors anakinra and canakinumab, and anti-IL-6 tocili-zumab may represent a key in optimizing FMF treatment and prevention or control of AA amyloi-dosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3216926
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