To date, billions of vaccine doses have been administered to restrain the current COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Rare side effects, including intravascular blood clots, were reported in the general population after vaccination. Among these, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been considered the most serious one. To shed further light on such an event, we conducted a literature search for case descriptions of CVST in vaccinated people. Findings were analyzed with em-phasis on demographic characteristics, type of vaccine, site of thrombosis, clinical and histopathological findings. From 258 potential articles published till September 2021, 41 studies were retrieved for a total of 552 patients. Of these, 492 patients (89.1%) had received AZD1222/Vaxzevria, 45 (8.2%) BNT162b2/CX-024414 Spikevax, 15 (2.7%) JNJ-78436735, and 2 (0.3%) Covishield vaccine. CVST occurred in 382 women and 170 men (mean aged 44 years), and the median timing from the shot was 9 days (range 2–45). Thrombi were predominantly seen in transverse (84%), sigmoid (66%), and/or superior sagittal (56%) sinuses. Brain injury (chiefly intracranial bleeding) occurred in 32% of cases. Of 426 patients with detailed clinical course, 63% were discharged in good clinical conditions, at times with variable neurological sequelae, whereas 37% deceased, largely due to brain injury. This narrative review confirmed CVST as a rare event after (adenoviral vector) COVID-19 vaccination, with a women/men rate ratio of 2.25. Though the pathogenesis of thrombosis is still under discus-sion, currently available histopathological findings likely indicate an underlying immune vasculitis.

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Analysis of 552 Worldwide Cases

de Gregorio C.
Primo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Colarusso L.
Secondo
Investigation
;
Ieni A.
Investigation
;
Mazzeo A. T.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Ferrazzo G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Noto A.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

To date, billions of vaccine doses have been administered to restrain the current COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Rare side effects, including intravascular blood clots, were reported in the general population after vaccination. Among these, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been considered the most serious one. To shed further light on such an event, we conducted a literature search for case descriptions of CVST in vaccinated people. Findings were analyzed with em-phasis on demographic characteristics, type of vaccine, site of thrombosis, clinical and histopathological findings. From 258 potential articles published till September 2021, 41 studies were retrieved for a total of 552 patients. Of these, 492 patients (89.1%) had received AZD1222/Vaxzevria, 45 (8.2%) BNT162b2/CX-024414 Spikevax, 15 (2.7%) JNJ-78436735, and 2 (0.3%) Covishield vaccine. CVST occurred in 382 women and 170 men (mean aged 44 years), and the median timing from the shot was 9 days (range 2–45). Thrombi were predominantly seen in transverse (84%), sigmoid (66%), and/or superior sagittal (56%) sinuses. Brain injury (chiefly intracranial bleeding) occurred in 32% of cases. Of 426 patients with detailed clinical course, 63% were discharged in good clinical conditions, at times with variable neurological sequelae, whereas 37% deceased, largely due to brain injury. This narrative review confirmed CVST as a rare event after (adenoviral vector) COVID-19 vaccination, with a women/men rate ratio of 2.25. Though the pathogenesis of thrombosis is still under discus-sion, currently available histopathological findings likely indicate an underlying immune vasculitis.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3222126
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