The interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields in cavities and natural or artificial atoms has played a crucial role in developing our understanding of light-matter interactions and quantum technologies. Recently, new regimes beyond the weak and strong light-matter coupling of cavity-QED have been explored in several settings, wherein the light-matter coupling rate becomes comparable to (ultrastrong coupling) or even exceeds (deep-strong coupling) the photon frequency. These ultrastrong coupling regimes can give rise to new physical effects and applications, and they challenge our understanding of cavity QED; fundamental issues like the proper definition of subsystems, their quantum measurements, the structure of light-matter ground states, and the analysis of time-dependent interactions are subject to gauge ambiguities that lead to even qualitatively distinct predictions. The resolution of these ambiguities is important for understanding and designing next-generation quantum devices that can operate in extreme coupling regimes. Here we discuss and provide solutions to these ambiguities by adopting an approach based on operational procedures involving measurements on the individual light and matter components of the interacting system.
Di Stefano O.
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