Radiation therapy (RT) is an effective therapeutic option for small localized cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) among patients who are not eligible for or refuse surgery. RT also has a defined role as an adjuvant treatment in cases of adverse features that predispose to tumor recurrence after local excision. Since the development of cSCC is often a late consequence of chronic sun exposure, its occurrence is more common among elderly patients whose comorbidities may contraindicate surgical procedures. These could be impeded not only by frail medical conditions but also by technical issues. Indeed, an aggressive locoregional behavior of cSCC may culminate in unresectability due to widespread invasion of neighboring tissues. Moreover, cSCC could develop distant metastases. Both locally advanced and metastatic cSCCs carry a poor prognosis. In these scenarios, recent discoveries of tumor molecular targets are promoting the use of promising systemic therapies, especially immunotherapy, over RT. However, the results from using immunotherapy and, even more so, of chemotherapy are still not optimal. By contrast, advances in radiation delivery equipment can safely treat even large and complex-shaped cSCC targets in challenging body sites. In addition, RT could also have a role in metastatic cSCC settings by enhancing the effectiveness of concomitant immunotherapy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on the body of literature about the use of radiotherapy for operable and inoperable locally advanced cSCCs and for metastatic ones in an attempt to define its current and future role.

Advanced or Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Current and Future Role of Radiation Therapy in the Era of Immunotherapy

Parisi S.;Pergolizzi S.
2022

Abstract

Radiation therapy (RT) is an effective therapeutic option for small localized cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) among patients who are not eligible for or refuse surgery. RT also has a defined role as an adjuvant treatment in cases of adverse features that predispose to tumor recurrence after local excision. Since the development of cSCC is often a late consequence of chronic sun exposure, its occurrence is more common among elderly patients whose comorbidities may contraindicate surgical procedures. These could be impeded not only by frail medical conditions but also by technical issues. Indeed, an aggressive locoregional behavior of cSCC may culminate in unresectability due to widespread invasion of neighboring tissues. Moreover, cSCC could develop distant metastases. Both locally advanced and metastatic cSCCs carry a poor prognosis. In these scenarios, recent discoveries of tumor molecular targets are promoting the use of promising systemic therapies, especially immunotherapy, over RT. However, the results from using immunotherapy and, even more so, of chemotherapy are still not optimal. By contrast, advances in radiation delivery equipment can safely treat even large and complex-shaped cSCC targets in challenging body sites. In addition, RT could also have a role in metastatic cSCC settings by enhancing the effectiveness of concomitant immunotherapy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on the body of literature about the use of radiotherapy for operable and inoperable locally advanced cSCCs and for metastatic ones in an attempt to define its current and future role.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3227418
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