Many chronic inflammatory processes are linked with the continuous release of inflammatory mediators and the activation of harmful signal‐transduction pathways that are able to facilitate disease progression. In this context atherosclerosis represents the most common pathological substrate of coronary heart disease, and the characterization of the disease as a chronic low‐grade inflammatory condition is now validated. The biomarkers of inflammation associated with clinical cardiovascular risk support the theory that targeted anti‐inflammatory treatment appears to be a promising strategy in reducing residual cardiovascular risk. Several literature data highlight cardioprotective effects of the long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This PUFA lowers plasma triglyceride levels and has potential beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. Preclinical studies reported that EPA reduces both pro‐inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels. Clinical studies in patients with coronary artery disease that receive pharmacological statin therapy suggest that EPA may decrease plaque vulnerability preventing plaque progression. This review aims to provide an overview of the links between inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors, importantly focusing on the role of diet, in particular examining the proposed role of EPA as well as the success or failure of standard pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

Role of EPA in Inflammation: Mechanisms, Effects, and Clinical Relevance

Crupi Rosalia
Co-primo
;
Cuzzocrea salvatore
Co-primo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Many chronic inflammatory processes are linked with the continuous release of inflammatory mediators and the activation of harmful signal‐transduction pathways that are able to facilitate disease progression. In this context atherosclerosis represents the most common pathological substrate of coronary heart disease, and the characterization of the disease as a chronic low‐grade inflammatory condition is now validated. The biomarkers of inflammation associated with clinical cardiovascular risk support the theory that targeted anti‐inflammatory treatment appears to be a promising strategy in reducing residual cardiovascular risk. Several literature data highlight cardioprotective effects of the long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This PUFA lowers plasma triglyceride levels and has potential beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. Preclinical studies reported that EPA reduces both pro‐inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels. Clinical studies in patients with coronary artery disease that receive pharmacological statin therapy suggest that EPA may decrease plaque vulnerability preventing plaque progression. This review aims to provide an overview of the links between inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors, importantly focusing on the role of diet, in particular examining the proposed role of EPA as well as the success or failure of standard pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3230610
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