Unconventional T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) make up a heterogeneous set of cells that characteristically show prompt responses toward specific antigens. Unconventional T cells recognize non-peptide antigens, which are bound and presented by diverse non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules and comprise γδ T cells, MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs), and natural killer T cells (NKTs). On the other hand, ILCs lack antigen-specific receptors and act as the innate counterpart to the T lymphocytes found in the adaptive immune response. The alteration of unconventional T cells and ILCs in frequency and functionality is correlated with the onset of several autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammation, and tumor. However, depending on the physio-pathological framework, unconventional T cells may exhibit either protective or pathogenic activity in a range of neoplastic diseases. Nonetheless, experimental models and clinical studies have displayed that some unconventional T cells are potential therapeutic targets, as well as prognostic and diagnostic markers. In fact, cell-mediated immune response in tumors has become the focus in immunotherapy against neoplastic disease. This review concentrates on the present knowledge concerning the function of unconventional T cell sets in the antitumor immune response in hematological malignancies, such as acute and chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that modulating the activity of unconventional T cells could be useful in the treatment of hematological neoplasms, in the prevention of specific conditions (such as graft versus host disease), and in the formulation of an effective anticancer vaccine therapy. The exact knowledge of the role of these cells could represent the prerequisite for the creation of a new form of immunotherapy for hematological neoplasms.

Harnessing Unconventional T Cells and Innate Lymphoid Cells to Prevent and Treat Hematological Malignancies: Prospects for New Immunotherapy

Allegra, Alessandro;Casciaro, Marco;Musolino, Caterina;Gangemi, Sebastiano
2022-01-01

Abstract

Unconventional T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) make up a heterogeneous set of cells that characteristically show prompt responses toward specific antigens. Unconventional T cells recognize non-peptide antigens, which are bound and presented by diverse non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules and comprise γδ T cells, MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs), and natural killer T cells (NKTs). On the other hand, ILCs lack antigen-specific receptors and act as the innate counterpart to the T lymphocytes found in the adaptive immune response. The alteration of unconventional T cells and ILCs in frequency and functionality is correlated with the onset of several autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammation, and tumor. However, depending on the physio-pathological framework, unconventional T cells may exhibit either protective or pathogenic activity in a range of neoplastic diseases. Nonetheless, experimental models and clinical studies have displayed that some unconventional T cells are potential therapeutic targets, as well as prognostic and diagnostic markers. In fact, cell-mediated immune response in tumors has become the focus in immunotherapy against neoplastic disease. This review concentrates on the present knowledge concerning the function of unconventional T cell sets in the antitumor immune response in hematological malignancies, such as acute and chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that modulating the activity of unconventional T cells could be useful in the treatment of hematological neoplasms, in the prevention of specific conditions (such as graft versus host disease), and in the formulation of an effective anticancer vaccine therapy. The exact knowledge of the role of these cells could represent the prerequisite for the creation of a new form of immunotherapy for hematological neoplasms.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3237272
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact