Mancozeb (MNZ) is a fungicide commonly employed in many countries worldwide. This study assesses MNZ absorption dynamics in 19 greenhouse farmers, specifically following dermal exposure, aiming to verify the efficacy of both preventive actions and protective equipment. For data collection, a multi-assessment approach was used, which included a survey to record study population features. MNZ exposure was assessed through the indirect measurement of ethylene thiourea (ETU), widely employed as an MNZ biomarker. The ETU concentration was measured with the patch method, detecting environmental ETU trapped in filter paper pads, applied both on skin and working clothes, during the 8 h work shift. Urine and serum end-of-shift samples were also collected to measure ETU concentrations and well-known oxidative stress biomarkers, respectively, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). It was observed that levels of ETU absorbed and ETU excreted were positively correlated. Additionally, working clothes effectively protected workers from MNZ exposure. Moreover, following stratification of the samples based on the specific working duty (i.e., preparation and spreading of MNZ and manipulation of MNZ-treated seedlings), it was found that the spreading group had higher ETU-related risk, despite lower chronic exposure levels. AOPP and ROM serum levels were higher in MNZ-exposed subjects compared with non-exposed controls, whereas BAP levels were significantly lower. Such results support an increase in the oxidative stress upon 8 h MNZ exposure at work. In particular, AOPP levels demonstrated a potential predictive role, as suggested by the contingency analysis results. Overall, this study, although conducted in a small group, confirms that ETU detection in pads, as well as in urine, might enable assessment of the risk associated with MNZ exposure in greenhouse workers. Additionally, the measurement of circulating oxidative stress biomarkers might help to stratify exposed workers based on their sensitivity to MNZ. Pivotally, the combination of both ETU measurement and biological monitoring might represent a novel valuable combined approach for risk assessment in farmhouse workers exposed to pesticides. In the future, these observations will help to implement effective preventive strategies in the workplace for workers at higher risk, including greenhouse farmers who are exposed to pesticides daily, as well as to clarify the occupational exposure levels to ETU.

Assessment of Mancozeb Exposure, Absorbed Dose, and Oxidative Damage in Greenhouse Farmers

Costa, Chiara;Teodoro, Michele;Giambo', Federica;Catania, Stefania;Vivarelli, Silvia
;
Fenga, Concettina
2022

Abstract

Mancozeb (MNZ) is a fungicide commonly employed in many countries worldwide. This study assesses MNZ absorption dynamics in 19 greenhouse farmers, specifically following dermal exposure, aiming to verify the efficacy of both preventive actions and protective equipment. For data collection, a multi-assessment approach was used, which included a survey to record study population features. MNZ exposure was assessed through the indirect measurement of ethylene thiourea (ETU), widely employed as an MNZ biomarker. The ETU concentration was measured with the patch method, detecting environmental ETU trapped in filter paper pads, applied both on skin and working clothes, during the 8 h work shift. Urine and serum end-of-shift samples were also collected to measure ETU concentrations and well-known oxidative stress biomarkers, respectively, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). It was observed that levels of ETU absorbed and ETU excreted were positively correlated. Additionally, working clothes effectively protected workers from MNZ exposure. Moreover, following stratification of the samples based on the specific working duty (i.e., preparation and spreading of MNZ and manipulation of MNZ-treated seedlings), it was found that the spreading group had higher ETU-related risk, despite lower chronic exposure levels. AOPP and ROM serum levels were higher in MNZ-exposed subjects compared with non-exposed controls, whereas BAP levels were significantly lower. Such results support an increase in the oxidative stress upon 8 h MNZ exposure at work. In particular, AOPP levels demonstrated a potential predictive role, as suggested by the contingency analysis results. Overall, this study, although conducted in a small group, confirms that ETU detection in pads, as well as in urine, might enable assessment of the risk associated with MNZ exposure in greenhouse workers. Additionally, the measurement of circulating oxidative stress biomarkers might help to stratify exposed workers based on their sensitivity to MNZ. Pivotally, the combination of both ETU measurement and biological monitoring might represent a novel valuable combined approach for risk assessment in farmhouse workers exposed to pesticides. In the future, these observations will help to implement effective preventive strategies in the workplace for workers at higher risk, including greenhouse farmers who are exposed to pesticides daily, as well as to clarify the occupational exposure levels to ETU.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3239936
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