Antibiotics have made it possible to treat bacterial infections such as meningitis and bacteraemia that, prior to their introduction, were untreatable and consequently fatal. Unfortunately, in recent decades overuse and misuse of antibiotics as well as social and economic factors have accelerated the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making drug treatment ineffective. Currently, at least 700,000 people worldwide die each year due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Without new and better treatments, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that this number could rise to 10 million by 2050, highlighting a health concern not of secondary importance. In February 2017, in light of increasing antibiotic resistance, the WHO published a list of pathogens that includes the pathogens designated by the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) to which were given the highest "priority status " since they represent the great threat to humans. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is a key step in the development of new antimicrobial drugs to tackle drug-resistant bacteria. In this review, both the mode of action and the mechanisms of resistance of commonly used antimicrobials will be examined. It also discusses the current state of AMR in the most critical resistant bacteria as determined by the WHO's global priority pathogens list.

Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance: The Most Critical Pathogens

Mancuso, Giuseppe;Midiri, Angelina;Gerace, Elisabetta;Biondo, Carmelo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Antibiotics have made it possible to treat bacterial infections such as meningitis and bacteraemia that, prior to their introduction, were untreatable and consequently fatal. Unfortunately, in recent decades overuse and misuse of antibiotics as well as social and economic factors have accelerated the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making drug treatment ineffective. Currently, at least 700,000 people worldwide die each year due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Without new and better treatments, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that this number could rise to 10 million by 2050, highlighting a health concern not of secondary importance. In February 2017, in light of increasing antibiotic resistance, the WHO published a list of pathogens that includes the pathogens designated by the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) to which were given the highest "priority status " since they represent the great threat to humans. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is a key step in the development of new antimicrobial drugs to tackle drug-resistant bacteria. In this review, both the mode of action and the mechanisms of resistance of commonly used antimicrobials will be examined. It also discusses the current state of AMR in the most critical resistant bacteria as determined by the WHO's global priority pathogens list.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3241990
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