Statins are drugs widely prescribed in high-risk patients for cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases and are, usually, safe and well tolerated. However, these drugs sometimes may cause neuromuscular side effects that represent about two-third of all adverse events. Muscle-related adverse events include cramps, myalgia, weakness, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy and, more rarely, rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, they may lead to peripheral neuropathy and induce or unmask a preexisting neuromuscular junction dysfunction. A clinical follow up of patients assuming statins could reveal early side effects that may cause neuromuscular damage and suggest how to better modulate their use. In fact, statin dechallenge or cessation, or the alternative use of other lipid-lowering agents, can avoid adverse events. This review summarizes the current knowledge on statin-associated neuromuscular adverse effects, diagnosis, and management. It is conceivable that the incidence of neuromuscular complications will increase because, nowadays, use of statins is even more diffused than in the past. On this purpose, it is expected that pharmacogenomic and environmental studies will help to timely predict neuromuscular complications due to statin exposure, leading to a more personalized therapeutic approach.

Statins Neuromuscular Adverse Effects

Attardo, Silvia
Primo
;
Musumeci, Olimpia
;
Toscano, Antonio
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Statins are drugs widely prescribed in high-risk patients for cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases and are, usually, safe and well tolerated. However, these drugs sometimes may cause neuromuscular side effects that represent about two-third of all adverse events. Muscle-related adverse events include cramps, myalgia, weakness, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy and, more rarely, rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, they may lead to peripheral neuropathy and induce or unmask a preexisting neuromuscular junction dysfunction. A clinical follow up of patients assuming statins could reveal early side effects that may cause neuromuscular damage and suggest how to better modulate their use. In fact, statin dechallenge or cessation, or the alternative use of other lipid-lowering agents, can avoid adverse events. This review summarizes the current knowledge on statin-associated neuromuscular adverse effects, diagnosis, and management. It is conceivable that the incidence of neuromuscular complications will increase because, nowadays, use of statins is even more diffused than in the past. On this purpose, it is expected that pharmacogenomic and environmental studies will help to timely predict neuromuscular complications due to statin exposure, leading to a more personalized therapeutic approach.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3243022
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