This study evaluated (i) whether weight gain and levels of inflammatory and immune markers including white blood cells (WBC), serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, albumin, and globulin fractions change between the Nero Siciliano pig breed and the crossbreed Landrace x Large White (LxLW) reared under the same environmental and farming conditions; and (ii) whether a liquid whey diet supplementation affects the investigated parameters in both genotypes. In this study, 10 crossbreed LxLW and 10 Nero Siciliano pigs were given control feed, representing the control groups (CTRC and CTRNS), whereas 10 crossbreed LxLW and 10 Nero Siciliano pigs were given control feed supplemented with liquid whey for 2 months, representing the experimental groups (WC and WNS). From each pig, body weight and blood were collected before experimental diet supplementation (T0), and one (T1) and two (T2) months after the start of the diet supplemented with whey. The white blood cell count (WBC), serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, total proteins, albumin and globulin fraction concentration were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance showed an increasing trend of body weight both in the control and experimental groups of the two pig genotypes throughout the monitoring period (p < 0.01) without a significant effect of genotype and diet (p > 0.05). The concentration of haptoglobin, β1- and β2-globulins was affected by pig genotype, diet supplementation, and time (p < 0.01). The values of WBC, C-reactive protein, albumin, α-globulins, and A/G ratio were affected by diet supplementation (p < 0.01) and time (p < 0.01) without an influence of genotype (p > 0.05). Nero Siciliano pigs showed lower levels of haptoglobin, β1-globulin, and β2-globulin compared to crossbreed LxLW. Nero Siciliano pigs and crossbred LxLW fed with liquid whey showed lower levels of WBC, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, α-, β1-, and β2-globulins and higher values of albumin compared to control groups. The results reinforced the hypothesis that autochthonous breeds possess higher resilience to farming conditions when compared to allochthonous breeds. Moreover, an immune-modulatory and an anti-inflammatory power of liquid whey dietary supplementation is suggested probably thanks to its content in natural bioactive substances including anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative factors.

Different genotype and a liquid whey-supplemented diet influence the resilience of pigs through immune-modulation and anti-inflammatory response

Enrico D’Alessandro
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Francesca Arfuso
Secondo
Methodology
;
Viviana Floridia
Data Curation
;
Giuseppe Tardiolo
Formal Analysis
;
Francesco Fazio
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Claudia Giannetto
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Giuseppe Piccione
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Alessandro Zumbo
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2022-01-01

Abstract

This study evaluated (i) whether weight gain and levels of inflammatory and immune markers including white blood cells (WBC), serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, albumin, and globulin fractions change between the Nero Siciliano pig breed and the crossbreed Landrace x Large White (LxLW) reared under the same environmental and farming conditions; and (ii) whether a liquid whey diet supplementation affects the investigated parameters in both genotypes. In this study, 10 crossbreed LxLW and 10 Nero Siciliano pigs were given control feed, representing the control groups (CTRC and CTRNS), whereas 10 crossbreed LxLW and 10 Nero Siciliano pigs were given control feed supplemented with liquid whey for 2 months, representing the experimental groups (WC and WNS). From each pig, body weight and blood were collected before experimental diet supplementation (T0), and one (T1) and two (T2) months after the start of the diet supplemented with whey. The white blood cell count (WBC), serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, total proteins, albumin and globulin fraction concentration were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance showed an increasing trend of body weight both in the control and experimental groups of the two pig genotypes throughout the monitoring period (p < 0.01) without a significant effect of genotype and diet (p > 0.05). The concentration of haptoglobin, β1- and β2-globulins was affected by pig genotype, diet supplementation, and time (p < 0.01). The values of WBC, C-reactive protein, albumin, α-globulins, and A/G ratio were affected by diet supplementation (p < 0.01) and time (p < 0.01) without an influence of genotype (p > 0.05). Nero Siciliano pigs showed lower levels of haptoglobin, β1-globulin, and β2-globulin compared to crossbreed LxLW. Nero Siciliano pigs and crossbred LxLW fed with liquid whey showed lower levels of WBC, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, α-, β1-, and β2-globulins and higher values of albumin compared to control groups. The results reinforced the hypothesis that autochthonous breeds possess higher resilience to farming conditions when compared to allochthonous breeds. Moreover, an immune-modulatory and an anti-inflammatory power of liquid whey dietary supplementation is suggested probably thanks to its content in natural bioactive substances including anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative factors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3246053
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