Long coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered syndrome characterized by multiple organ manifestations that persist for weeks to months, following the recovery from acute disease. Occasionally, neurological and cardiovascular side effects mimicking long COVID-19 have been reported in recipients of COVID-19 vaccines. Hypothetically, the clinical similarity could be due to a shared pathogenic role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein produced by the virus or used for immunization. The S protein can bind to neuropilin (NRP)-1, which normally functions as a coreceptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. By antagonizing the docking of VEGF-A to NRP-1, the S protein could disrupt physiological pathways involved in angiogenesis and nociception. One consequence could be the increase in unbound forms of VEGF-A that could bind to other receptors. SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals may exhibit increased plasma levels of VEGF-A during both acute illness and convalescence, which could be responsible for diffuse microvascular and neurological damage. A few studies suggest that serum VEGF-A may also be a potential biomarker for long COVID-19, whereas evidence for COVID-19 vaccines is lacking and merits further investigation.

Impaired VEGF-A-Mediated Neurovascular Crosstalk Induced by SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein: A Potential Hypothesis Explaining Long COVID-19 Symptoms and COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects?

Rossella talotta
Primo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Long coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered syndrome characterized by multiple organ manifestations that persist for weeks to months, following the recovery from acute disease. Occasionally, neurological and cardiovascular side effects mimicking long COVID-19 have been reported in recipients of COVID-19 vaccines. Hypothetically, the clinical similarity could be due to a shared pathogenic role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein produced by the virus or used for immunization. The S protein can bind to neuropilin (NRP)-1, which normally functions as a coreceptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. By antagonizing the docking of VEGF-A to NRP-1, the S protein could disrupt physiological pathways involved in angiogenesis and nociception. One consequence could be the increase in unbound forms of VEGF-A that could bind to other receptors. SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals may exhibit increased plasma levels of VEGF-A during both acute illness and convalescence, which could be responsible for diffuse microvascular and neurological damage. A few studies suggest that serum VEGF-A may also be a potential biomarker for long COVID-19, whereas evidence for COVID-19 vaccines is lacking and merits further investigation.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3246413
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 6
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 5
social impact