Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor disturbances as a result of a complex and not fully understood pathogenesis, probably including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and formation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. As age is the main risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders including PD, progressive aging of the immune system leading to inflammaging and immunosenescence may contribute to neuroinflammation leading to PD onset and progression; abnormal α-syn aggregation in the context of immune dysfunction may favor activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome within microglial cells through interaction with toll-like receptors (TLRs). This process would further lead to activation of Caspase (Cas)-1, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PC), with subsequent impairment of mitochondria and damage to dopaminergic neurons. All these phenomena are mediated by the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and enhanced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To date, drugs to treat PD are mainly aimed at relieving clinical symptoms and there are no disease-modifying options to reverse or stop disease progression. This review outlines the role of the TLR/NLRP3/Cas-1 pathway in PD-related immune dysfunction, also focusing on specific therapeutic options that might be used since the early stages of the disease to counteract neuroinflammation and immune dysfunction.

Toll‑like receptors and NLRP3 infammasome‑dependent pathways in Parkinson’s disease: mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

Luca Soraci;Maria Elsa Gambuzza;Pasqualina Lagana';Annamaria Buda;Giada Barresi;Andrea Corsonello;Giuseppe Lorello;Silvia Marino
2023-01-01

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor disturbances as a result of a complex and not fully understood pathogenesis, probably including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and formation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. As age is the main risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders including PD, progressive aging of the immune system leading to inflammaging and immunosenescence may contribute to neuroinflammation leading to PD onset and progression; abnormal α-syn aggregation in the context of immune dysfunction may favor activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome within microglial cells through interaction with toll-like receptors (TLRs). This process would further lead to activation of Caspase (Cas)-1, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PC), with subsequent impairment of mitochondria and damage to dopaminergic neurons. All these phenomena are mediated by the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and enhanced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To date, drugs to treat PD are mainly aimed at relieving clinical symptoms and there are no disease-modifying options to reverse or stop disease progression. This review outlines the role of the TLR/NLRP3/Cas-1 pathway in PD-related immune dysfunction, also focusing on specific therapeutic options that might be used since the early stages of the disease to counteract neuroinflammation and immune dysfunction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3250582
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