Background: Urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) are related to recurrence and progression of urothelial carcinoma. Differentiating CIS and dysplasia from reactive atypia is often difficult based only on histological features. The integration of histological findings with immunohistochemistry is used in routine practice to make a diagnosis of CIS and, for this purpose, the immunohistochemical markers CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 are used to supplement histology. In this work, we aimed to assess CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 as immunohistochemical markers in patients with CIS through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and methods: A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases for English-language studies published from January 2010 to April 2021. Studies were considered eligible if they evaluated the CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 expression in CIS. Results: In total, 15 references were suitable for quantitative review. The overall rate of CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 expression in CIS was 43%, 31%, 44%, 38%, respectively. Conclusions: Our study supports the 2014 International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus that histological assessment remains the gold standard to diagnose urothelial CIS and suggests that a very close correlation between morphological, immunohistochemical and clinical data is essential to provide the best management for patients with bladder carcinoma.
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