Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are subepithelial lesions (SELs) that commonly develop in the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs, unlike other SELs, can exhibit malignant behavior, so differential diagnosis is critical to the decision-making process. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered the most accurate imaging method for diagnosing and differentiating SELs in the gastrointestinal tract by assessing the lesions precisely and evaluating their malignant risk. Due to their overlapping imaging characteristics, endosonographers may have difficulty distinguishing GISTs from other SELs using conventional EUS alone, and the collection of tissue samples from these lesions may be technically challenging. Even though it appears to be less effective in the case of smaller lesions, histology is now the gold standard for achieving a final diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary and invasive treatment for benign SELs. The use of enhanced EUS modalities and elastography has improved the diagnostic ability of EUS. Furthermore, recent advancements in artificial intelligence systems that use EUS images have allowed them to distinguish GISTs from other SELs, thereby improving their diagnostic accuracy.
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