Background: A major worry of juvenile penile LS is potential malignant degeneration to spinocellular carcinoma (SCC) in adulthood. LS is characterized by increased CD8+ and CD57+ cells, dermal sclerosis, epidermal atrophy, and hyperkeratosis. p53 and Ki67 are reliable premalignant markers. Our aim was to define the LS immunohistochemical profile of foreskin in children, focusing on tissue immune response and cell proliferation. Methods: Thirty specimens of foreskins removed from pediatric patients during circumcision were included: six from ritual operation (A), twelve from phimosis (B), and twelve from phimosis with LS (C). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for histomorphology and immunohistochemistry. A quantitative evaluation for CD8, CD57, p53, and Ki-67 and a statistical analysis were performed. Results: As compared to groups A and B, the samples from group C patients showed an acanthotic epidermis, a dermal band of lymphoid infiltrate with a significant enhancement of CD8+ CD57+ lymphocytes, and a keratinocytic hyperplasia with an overexpression of Ki67+ and p53+ cells. Conclusions: Immunohistological findings confirmed an immune reaction and proliferative behavior in juvenile LS of foreskin. We believe that radical circumcision should be the first treatment of choice in pediatric patients with clinical suspicious of LS for the potential risk of transformation to SCC in adulthood.
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