Solid tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, being characterized by rapid tumor growth and local and distant metastases. The failures encountered in cancer treatment are mainly related to the complicated biology of the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles-based (NPs) approaches have shown the potential to overcome the limitations caused by the pathophysiological features of solid cancers, enabling the development of multifunctional systems for cancer diagnosis and therapy and allowing effective inhibition of tumor growth. Among the different classes of NPs, 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), due to their outstanding chemical and physical properties, easy surface multi-functionalization, near-infrared (NIR) light absorption and tunable biocompatibility, represent ideal nanoplatforms for the development of theranostic tools for the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we reviewed the most recent advances related to the synthesis of nano-systems based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), for the development of theranostic NPs to be used for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy, photothermal (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), applied to solid tumors destruction. The advantages in using these nano-systems are here discussed for each class of GBNs, taking into consideration the different chemical properties and possibility of multi-functionalization, as well as biodistribution and toxicity aspects that represent a key challenge for their translation into clinical use.

Theranostic Applications of 2D Graphene-Based Materials for Solid Tumors Treatment

Iannazzo D.
Primo
;
Celesti C.;Giofre S. V.;Ettari R.
Penultimo
;
Bitto A.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Solid tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, being characterized by rapid tumor growth and local and distant metastases. The failures encountered in cancer treatment are mainly related to the complicated biology of the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles-based (NPs) approaches have shown the potential to overcome the limitations caused by the pathophysiological features of solid cancers, enabling the development of multifunctional systems for cancer diagnosis and therapy and allowing effective inhibition of tumor growth. Among the different classes of NPs, 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), due to their outstanding chemical and physical properties, easy surface multi-functionalization, near-infrared (NIR) light absorption and tunable biocompatibility, represent ideal nanoplatforms for the development of theranostic tools for the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we reviewed the most recent advances related to the synthesis of nano-systems based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), for the development of theranostic NPs to be used for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy, photothermal (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), applied to solid tumors destruction. The advantages in using these nano-systems are here discussed for each class of GBNs, taking into consideration the different chemical properties and possibility of multi-functionalization, as well as biodistribution and toxicity aspects that represent a key challenge for their translation into clinical use.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3271828
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