: Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 variants mutated in genomic regions targeted by antiviral drugs have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the potential of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex subunits and non-structural protein (Nsp)5 of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to accumulate natural mutations that could affect the efficacy of antiviral drugs. To this aim, SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences isolated from 4155 drug-naive individuals from southern Italy were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequencing of the 4155 samples showed the following viral variant distribution: 71.2% Delta, 22.2% Omicron, and 6.4% Alpha. In the Nsp12 sequences, we found 84 amino acid substitutions. The most common one was P323L, detected in 3777/4155 (91%) samples, with 2906/3777 (69.9%) also showing the G671S substitution in combination. Additionally, we identified 28, 14, and 24 different amino acid substitutions in the Nsp5, Nsp7, and Nsp8 genomic regions, respectively. Of note, the V186F and A191V substitutions, affecting residues adjacent to the active site of Nsp5 (the target of the antiviral drug Paxlovid), were found in 157/4155 (3.8%) and 3/4155 (0.07%) samples, respectively. In conclusion, the RdRp complex subunits and the Nsp5 genomic region exhibit susceptibility to accumulating natural mutations. This susceptibility poses a potential risk to the efficacy of antiviral drugs, as these mutations may compromise the drug ability to inhibit viral replication.

Assessing Genomic Mutations in SARS-CoV-2: Potential Resistance to Antiviral Drugs in Viral Populations from Untreated COVID-19 Patients

Lombardo, Daniele;Musolino, Cristina;Chines, Valeria;Palermo, Claudia;Cacciola, Irene;Raffa, Giuseppina;Pollicino, Teresa
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 variants mutated in genomic regions targeted by antiviral drugs have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the potential of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex subunits and non-structural protein (Nsp)5 of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to accumulate natural mutations that could affect the efficacy of antiviral drugs. To this aim, SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences isolated from 4155 drug-naive individuals from southern Italy were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequencing of the 4155 samples showed the following viral variant distribution: 71.2% Delta, 22.2% Omicron, and 6.4% Alpha. In the Nsp12 sequences, we found 84 amino acid substitutions. The most common one was P323L, detected in 3777/4155 (91%) samples, with 2906/3777 (69.9%) also showing the G671S substitution in combination. Additionally, we identified 28, 14, and 24 different amino acid substitutions in the Nsp5, Nsp7, and Nsp8 genomic regions, respectively. Of note, the V186F and A191V substitutions, affecting residues adjacent to the active site of Nsp5 (the target of the antiviral drug Paxlovid), were found in 157/4155 (3.8%) and 3/4155 (0.07%) samples, respectively. In conclusion, the RdRp complex subunits and the Nsp5 genomic region exhibit susceptibility to accumulating natural mutations. This susceptibility poses a potential risk to the efficacy of antiviral drugs, as these mutations may compromise the drug ability to inhibit viral replication.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3286129
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