The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poly-ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) films incorporating different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) of nisin on the biofilm-forming ability of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus 815 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. Nisin was incorporated into two grades of EVA (EVA14 and EVA28) in the melt during a common film-blowing operation. The efficacy of EVA/ nisin films was evaluated by biofilm biomass measurements and Live/Dead staining in combination with fluorescence microscopy. In order to evaluate whether the nisin incorporation could modify the film surface properties, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The results revealed the efficacy of EVA14/nisin films in reducing biofilm formation on their surfaces with more evident effect for S. epidermidis than L. monocytogenes and S. aureus strains. In contrast, EVA28/ nisin films showed unsatisfactory activity. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed poor biofilm formation on EVA14/ nisin films, also characterised by the presence of dead cells. The data presented in this study offer new potential applications for developing strategies aimed to improve the effect of antimicrobial agents.
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