In recent years several potent HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors have been identified and after the successful clinical use of raltegravir, they have gained a definitive place in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Yet, there is a continuous effort to design newer inhibitors that target different steps in the integration process. Furthermore, the increased understanding of IN structural biology has opened novel approaches to inhibit IN, such as targeting its multimerization or interaction with cellular cofactors. On these bases, we have concentrated our research on the identification of small molecules able to inhibit two different stages of the integration process: the IN strand-transfer phase and the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. We found that the 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (CHI-1043) is an interesting anti-HIV agent exhibiting dual inhibitory effects. This work has suggested the possibility of also constructing an integration dual inhibitor using a design-in strategy.
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