OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this work was to study the dose perturbation within the target volume of a external MV radiation therapy when using metal fiducials. METHODS: We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 of a cylindrical fiducial made either of gold or of steel and simulated the photon irradiation beam originating from a medical Linac operating at 6, 10 or 15 MV. For each energy, two different irradiation schemes were simulated: a single 5 x 5-cm square field in the -x direction, and five 5 x 5-cm fields at 0 degrees, 80 degrees, 165 degrees, 195 degrees and 280 degrees. RESULTS: In a single beam irradiation scheme, we observed a dose reduction behind fiducials varying from -20% for gold at 6 MV to -5% for steel at 15 MV, and a dose increment in front of the fiducial ranging from +33% for gold at 15 MV to +10% for steel at 6 MV. When five beams were employed, a dose increment ranging from +28% to +46% has been found around gold. Around a steel fiducial, an average increment of +17% was found, irrespective of the photon energy. CONCLUSIONS: When using a single beam, the decrement of dose behind both steel and gold markers increases with the photon energy. This effect vanishes when a multifield treatment is delivered; in this instance there is a dose increment around fiducials, according to both fiducial material and photon energy, with lower values for steel and 6 MV. This energy represents the best choice when fiducial markers are present inside the irradiated volume.

Evaluation of the dose perturbation around gold and steel fiducial markers in a medical linac through Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation.

PONTORIERO, ANTONIO;AMATO, ERNESTO;DE RENZIS, Costantino;PERGOLIZZI, Stefano
2015

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this work was to study the dose perturbation within the target volume of a external MV radiation therapy when using metal fiducials. METHODS: We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 of a cylindrical fiducial made either of gold or of steel and simulated the photon irradiation beam originating from a medical Linac operating at 6, 10 or 15 MV. For each energy, two different irradiation schemes were simulated: a single 5 x 5-cm square field in the -x direction, and five 5 x 5-cm fields at 0 degrees, 80 degrees, 165 degrees, 195 degrees and 280 degrees. RESULTS: In a single beam irradiation scheme, we observed a dose reduction behind fiducials varying from -20% for gold at 6 MV to -5% for steel at 15 MV, and a dose increment in front of the fiducial ranging from +33% for gold at 15 MV to +10% for steel at 6 MV. When five beams were employed, a dose increment ranging from +28% to +46% has been found around gold. Around a steel fiducial, an average increment of +17% was found, irrespective of the photon energy. CONCLUSIONS: When using a single beam, the decrement of dose behind both steel and gold markers increases with the photon energy. This effect vanishes when a multifield treatment is delivered; in this instance there is a dose increment around fiducials, according to both fiducial material and photon energy, with lower values for steel and 6 MV. This energy represents the best choice when fiducial markers are present inside the irradiated volume.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11570/3011175
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