In fishes, exploitation of aerial gas exchange has evolved independently many times, involving a variety of air-breathing organs. Indeed, air-breathing occurs in at least 49 known families of fish (Graham, 1997). Many amphibious vertebrates, at some stage of their development are actually trimodal breathers that use various combinations of respiratory surfaces to breath both water (skin and/or gill) and air (skin and/or lung). The present review examines the evolutionary implications of air-breathing organs in fishes and the morphology of the peripheral receptors and the neurotransmitter content of the cells involved in the control of air-breathing. Control of breathing, whether gill ventilation or air-breathing, is influenced by feedback from peripheral and/or central nervous system receptors that respond to changes in PO2, PCO2 and/or pH. Although the specific chemoreceptors mediating the respiratory reflexes have not been conclusively identified, studies in water-breathing teleosts have implicated the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) existing in gill tissues as the O2 sensitive chemoreceptors that initiate the cardiorespiratory reflexes in aquatic vertebrates. Some of the air-breathing fishes, such as Protopterus, Polypterus and Amia have been shown to have NECs in the gills and/or lungs, although the role of these receptors and their innervation in the control of breathing is not known. NECs have been also reported in the specialized respiratory epithelia of accessory respiratory organs (ARO's) of some catfish species and in the gill and skin of the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri. Unlike teleosts matching an O2-oriented ventilation to ambient O2 levels, lungfishes have central and peripheral H+/CO2 receptors that control the acid-base status of the blood.

Air- breathing in fish: Air- breathing organs and control of respiration Nerves and neurotransmitters in the air-breathing organs and the skin.

GIACOMO ZACCONE
Primo
;
EUGENIA RITA LAURIANO
Secondo
;
GIOELE CAPILLO;
2018-01-01

Abstract

In fishes, exploitation of aerial gas exchange has evolved independently many times, involving a variety of air-breathing organs. Indeed, air-breathing occurs in at least 49 known families of fish (Graham, 1997). Many amphibious vertebrates, at some stage of their development are actually trimodal breathers that use various combinations of respiratory surfaces to breath both water (skin and/or gill) and air (skin and/or lung). The present review examines the evolutionary implications of air-breathing organs in fishes and the morphology of the peripheral receptors and the neurotransmitter content of the cells involved in the control of air-breathing. Control of breathing, whether gill ventilation or air-breathing, is influenced by feedback from peripheral and/or central nervous system receptors that respond to changes in PO2, PCO2 and/or pH. Although the specific chemoreceptors mediating the respiratory reflexes have not been conclusively identified, studies in water-breathing teleosts have implicated the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) existing in gill tissues as the O2 sensitive chemoreceptors that initiate the cardiorespiratory reflexes in aquatic vertebrates. Some of the air-breathing fishes, such as Protopterus, Polypterus and Amia have been shown to have NECs in the gills and/or lungs, although the role of these receptors and their innervation in the control of breathing is not known. NECs have been also reported in the specialized respiratory epithelia of accessory respiratory organs (ARO's) of some catfish species and in the gill and skin of the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri. Unlike teleosts matching an O2-oriented ventilation to ambient O2 levels, lungfishes have central and peripheral H+/CO2 receptors that control the acid-base status of the blood.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3140440
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