Background: Acute abdominal pain in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-known clinical symptom and is mainly related to peritonitis. The presence, although rare, of red umbilicus may guide the diagnosis as a suggestive sign of peritonitis also in the non-neonatal period. Instead, the association between intussusception and NS is quite limited. We reviewed all published cases in the literature, and to our knowledge, this is one of the few pediatric cases of spontaneous resolution of intussusception in the setting of NS. Finally, a review of the causes of abdominal pain during the course of NS was made. Cases presentation: We report two pediatric patient cases who complained of acute abdominal pain during a relapse episode of their NS. The first case is a 4-year-old boy with NS (fourth relapse) who presented with acute abdominal pain, ascites, and red umbilicus. Our suspect of primary peritonitis was clinically confirmed because of the subsequent appearance of the classical peritoneal signs. The second case is a 4-year-old boy who developed an ileo-ileal intussusception during the treatment of his first NS relapse, with spontaneous reduction. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disorders are frequently encountered in the course of NS. The appearance of acute abdominal pain in children with NS requires quick management, both clinical and instrumental. A multidisciplinary team approach needs to be encouraged to lead to an accurate diagnosis and a correct treatment.

Acute abdominal pain and nephrotic syndrome: pediatric case reports and review of the literature

Carucci N. S.
Secondo
;
Comito V.;Impellizzeri P.;Visalli C.;Ventrici C.;Chimenz R.;Romeo C.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: Acute abdominal pain in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-known clinical symptom and is mainly related to peritonitis. The presence, although rare, of red umbilicus may guide the diagnosis as a suggestive sign of peritonitis also in the non-neonatal period. Instead, the association between intussusception and NS is quite limited. We reviewed all published cases in the literature, and to our knowledge, this is one of the few pediatric cases of spontaneous resolution of intussusception in the setting of NS. Finally, a review of the causes of abdominal pain during the course of NS was made. Cases presentation: We report two pediatric patient cases who complained of acute abdominal pain during a relapse episode of their NS. The first case is a 4-year-old boy with NS (fourth relapse) who presented with acute abdominal pain, ascites, and red umbilicus. Our suspect of primary peritonitis was clinically confirmed because of the subsequent appearance of the classical peritoneal signs. The second case is a 4-year-old boy who developed an ileo-ileal intussusception during the treatment of his first NS relapse, with spontaneous reduction. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disorders are frequently encountered in the course of NS. The appearance of acute abdominal pain in children with NS requires quick management, both clinical and instrumental. A multidisciplinary team approach needs to be encouraged to lead to an accurate diagnosis and a correct treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3216458
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