The number of multidrug-resistant bacteria is rapidly spreading worldwide. Among the various mechanisms determining resistance to antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps play a noteworthy role because they export extraneous and noxious substrates from the inside to the outside environment of the bacterial cell contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) and, consequently, to the failure of anti-infective therapies. The expression of multidrug efflux pumps can be under the control of transcriptional regulators and two-component systems (TCS). TCS are a major mechanism by which microorganisms sense and reply to external and/or intramembrane stimuli by coordinating the expression of genes involved not only in pathogenic pathways but also in antibiotic resistance. In this review, we describe the influence of TCS on multidrug efflux pump expression and activity in some Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Taking into account the strict correlation between TCS and multidrug efflux pumps, the development of drugs targeting TCS, alone or together with already discovered efflux pump inhibitors, may represent a beneficial strategy to contribute to the fight against growing antibiotic resistance.

Antimicrobial Resistance: Two-Component Regulatory Systems and Multidrug Efflux Pumps

De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio
;
Lentini, Germana;Coppolino, Francesco;Beninati, Concetta
2023-01-01

Abstract

The number of multidrug-resistant bacteria is rapidly spreading worldwide. Among the various mechanisms determining resistance to antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps play a noteworthy role because they export extraneous and noxious substrates from the inside to the outside environment of the bacterial cell contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) and, consequently, to the failure of anti-infective therapies. The expression of multidrug efflux pumps can be under the control of transcriptional regulators and two-component systems (TCS). TCS are a major mechanism by which microorganisms sense and reply to external and/or intramembrane stimuli by coordinating the expression of genes involved not only in pathogenic pathways but also in antibiotic resistance. In this review, we describe the influence of TCS on multidrug efflux pump expression and activity in some Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Taking into account the strict correlation between TCS and multidrug efflux pumps, the development of drugs targeting TCS, alone or together with already discovered efflux pump inhibitors, may represent a beneficial strategy to contribute to the fight against growing antibiotic resistance.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3271908
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact